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doc 普陀区2018-2019学年度第一学期期末质量监控试卷高三英语(满分140分,完卷时间120分钟)I. Listening prehension(略)II. Grammar and vocabularySection A 10%The Best Book I’ve Ever ReadFrankly, I have read nearly all of the great works of literature, but no book has ever impressed me as deeply or directly ____1____ Joel Stein’s Man Made: A Stupid Quest for Masendinity.Haven’t we all, on some level, been Jewish boys in New Jersey in ____2____ 1970s with only female friends, an Easy-Bake oven and a strong preference for show tunes? Haven’t we all had a panic attack ____3____ learning we’re going to have a son, since that means we’re going to have to figure out how to throw footballs, watch other people throw footballs and decide ____4____ to be happy or sad about the results of football throwing? Haven’t we all then tried to correct our lack of maleness by being a man, fighting fires with firefighters, ____5____ (drive) a Lamborghini and doing three days of Army training camp? I know I have.The only parts I didn’t fully enjoy were ___6___ in which the author suffered horribly. After just three hours of training camp, he fainted weakly into the arms of a soldier. The film rights to Man Made have already been sold to Fox, and I hope it gets ____7____ (turn) into a movie with George Clooney playing the Stein role, since they remind me so much of each other.____8____ this is only Stein’s first book, I would already consider him as someone like David Sedaris, Dave Barry, James Thurber, Mark Twain and Abraham Lincoln. I ____9____ (remend) Man Made not just to all my friends and family but also to strangers on Twitter over and over again. My one fear is ____10____ after this great achievement, Stein will lose his ability to be a cruel critic of our shallow times.【答案】1. as 2. the3. when 4. whether5. driving 6. those7. turned 8. Though/Although/While9. have remended10. that【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文。文章作者主要介绍了他读过的最好的书——乔尔·斯坦的《成为男人:对男子气概的愚蠢追求》【1题详解】考查固定结构。as+ adj./ adv. +as表示“和……一样”。句意:但没有一本书能像乔尔·斯坦的《成为男人:对男子气概的愚蠢追求》那样深深地或直接地给我留下深刻的印象。故填as。【2题详解】考查冠词。in + the + 整数年+s/ 's表示“在某年代 ”。句意:上世纪70年代,在某种程度上,难道我们不都是只有女性朋友新泽西的犹太男孩吗?故填the。【3题详解】考查连词。根据句意可知,这里用连词when,表示“当……时候”。句意:当我们得知要生儿子的时候,难道不是所有人都惊恐万分吗?故填when。【4题详解】考查固定结构。whether or 是 还是 .。句意:决定是否对足球投射的结果感到高兴还是悲伤?故填whether。【5题详解】考查非谓语动词。这里作介词by的宾语,与being、fighting和doing并列。难道我们不是所有人都试图通过成为一个男人、或者消防员扑灭火灾、驾驶兰博基尼和进行三天的军训营来纠正我们缺乏男人气质?故填driving。【6题详解】考查代词。这里代指前面的The only parts,故用复数those代指。句意:我不是完全喜欢的部分是那些作者所遭受的可怕的痛苦。故填those、【7题详解】考查非谓语动词。get + done(过去分词),构成被动结构。句意:我希望它变成一部电影。故填turned。【8题详解】考查连词。根据前后句可知,这里是让步状语从句。句意:虽然这只是斯坦的第一本书,但是我已经认为他是像戴维·赛达瑞斯、戴夫·巴里、詹姆斯·瑟伯、马克·吐温和亚伯拉罕·林肯这样的人。故填Though/Although/While。【9题详解】考查时态。根据句意可知,这里用现在完成时态。句意:我已经不仅把《成为男人》推荐给我所有的朋友和家人,而且多次推荐给推特上的陌生人。故填have remended。【10题详解】考查名词性从句。分析表语从句可知,从句为不缺少成分的陈述句,故用that引导。句意:我唯一担心的是,在这个伟大的成就之后,斯坦将会丧失他成为我们肤浅时代的残酷批评者的能力。故填that。【点睛】语法填空是通过语篇在语境中考查语法知识的运用能力,在解题前应快速浏览短文掌握大意,在读懂短文的基础上,结合短文提供的特定的语言环境去逐句分析。要解决好语法填空,离不开坚实的语法知识,有了坚实的语法知识才能对语言进行正确的分析和判断,从而答对题目。本篇语法填空考查到的语法知识有时态、词性、从句以及固定短语等,其中定语从句考查,先要找准先行词,然后分析先行词在定语从句中所作的成分,最后确定关系词。例如小题10中,分析句子可知,本句为表语从句,从句为不缺少成分的陈述句,故用that引导。II. Grammar and VocabularySection A (10分)Directions: After reading the passage below, fill in the blanks to make the passage coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.The Father of JD PrintingAbout twenty years ago, the surgeons at the Wilford Hull medical center working to separate a pair of conjoined(连体的) twins thought that only one would be able to walk after the operation. After a model of the girls’ bone structure was ____11____ using 3D printing, however, they found a shared upper leg bone to be bigger than expected and split it successfully, ____12____ in both twins being able to walk. Now eighty and still working as chief technology officer of 3D Systems. Chuck Hull is enjoying some minor ____13____ 31 years after he first printed a small black eye-wash cup using a new method of manufacturing known as 3D printing.At the time, he was working for a pany that used UV light to put thin layers of plastic coats on tabletops and ____14____. He had an idea that if he could place thousands of thin layers of plastic on top of each other and then cut their shape using light, he would be able to form three dimensional objects. After a year, he ____15____ a system where light was shone into a bottle of photopolymer – a material which changes from liquid to plastic-like solid when light shines on it – and traces the shape of one level of the object. Subsequent layers are then printed until it is ____16____.After patenting the invention, he set up 3D Systems, ____17____ getting $6m (£3.5m) from a Canadian investor. The first ____18____ product came out in 1988 and proved a hit among car manufacturers, in the aerospace sector and for panies designing medical equipment. The possibilities appear endless – from home-printed food and medicine to ____19____ that pictures of objects be able to be taken in shops and then recreated using plans downloaded from the Internet Although deliberate in his responses, there is one moment when the ____20____ spoken Chuck Hull tells of his surprise about what exactly his creation was capable of achieving.【答案】11. A 12. D13. C 14. B15. F 16. H17. G 18. J19. E 20. K【解析】本文是一篇人物介绍。本文主要介绍了对技术影响深远的3D打印之父——查克·赫尔。【11题详解】考查动词。根据前面的was可知,这里用动词的过去分词形式。句意:使用3D打印生成女孩骨骼结构模型后。故选A。【12题详解】考查短语。短语result in结果,在句中作结果状语,表示自然而然的结果,故用现在分词、句意:他们发现两人共用的一根大腿骨比预想中更大,并成功将其分开,结果两个孩子都能走路了。故选D。【13题详解】考查名词。根据前面的形容词minor可知,后接名词形式。句意:31年前,他首次利用一种被称为立体平面印刷术的新制作方法,既现在所知的3D打印技术,打印出一个小小的黑色眼药水杯,查克·赫尔由此小有名气。故选C。【14题详解】考查名词。这里与前面的名词tabletops并列。句意:那时,他就职于一个利用紫外线把薄薄的塑料饰面层置于桌面和家具表面的公司。故选B。【15题详解】考查动词。分析句子可知,句中缺少谓语动词,根据文章可知用一般过去时。句意:一年后,他发明了一种方法。故选F。【16题详解】考查动词。根据前面的is可知,这里用过去分词形式。句意:然后再把随后的几层打印上去,直到最后完成。故选H。【17题详解】考查副词。根据句意可知,这里用副词修饰整个句子。句意:这项发明申请专利后,他创立了3D系统公司,最终从一位加拿大投资者那里获得了600万美元(350万英镑)的投资。故选G。【18题详解】考查形容词。修饰名词product,用形容词修饰。句意:首件商业化产品于1988年出炉。故选J。【19题详解】考查名词。介词to后接名词形式。句意:这种技术可利用的价值似乎是无穷的——从家用打印食品和药品,到从商店里拍下瓷器的照片,然后用从互联网上下载的图纸重新制作的建议。故选E。【20题详解】考查副词。修饰过去分词spoken,前用副词形式。句意:尽管他的反应审慎持重,但有那么一刻, 轻声细语的查克·赫尔还是显出了他对自己的发明到底能够取得什么样的成果感到吃惊。故选K。III. Reading prehensionSection A (15分)Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.Words to Turn a Conversation AroundIt’s not what you say, but it’s how you say it – isn’t it? According to a language expert, we may have this wrong. “We are pushed and pulled around by language far more than we ____21____,” says Elizabeth Stoke, professor of social interaction at Loughborough University. Stoke and her colleagues have ____22____ thousands of hours of recorded conversations, from customer services to mediation(调解) hotlines and police crisis ____23____. They discovered that certain words or phrases have the power to change the course of a conversation.Some of these words are surprising, and ____24____ what we’ve been taught to believe. For example, in a study of conversations between doctors and patients, evidence showed that doctors who ____25____ options rather than remended best solutions, got a better response, despite the suggestion from hospital guidelines to talk about the best interests of the patient. But, from conversation experts such as Stoke to FBI negotiators and munication coaches, we’re learning which words are likely to ___26___ or persuade us.Stoke found that people who had already responded ____27____ when asked if they would like to attend mediation seemed to change their minds when the mediator used the phrase. “Would you be willing to e for a meeting?” “As soon as the word ‘willing’ was used, people would say: ‘Oh, yes, definitely’—they would actually ____28____ the sentence to agree.” Stoke found it had the same effect in different settings: with business-to-business cold callers; with doctors trying to ____29____ people to go to a weight-loss class. She also looked at phrases such as “Would you like to” and “Would you be interested in”. “Sometimes they ____30____, but ‘willing’ was the one that got people to agree more rapidly and with more enthusiasm.”“’Hello’ is a really important word that can change the ____31____ of a conversation,” Stoke says. “It’s about how you respond to people who are what we call ‘first movers’ – people who say something really ____32____,” “It might be the work colleagues who are extremely angry to your desk with a plaint or the neighbor who ____33____ rude words about parking as you’re putting out the bins.” “What do you do with that person? Rather than respond in the same manner, saying something nice, such as a very bright ‘Hello!’, socializes that other person a little bit.” Use it when you want to resist getting into a ____34____. “You have to be careful not to sound too passive-aggressive,” Stoke says, “but just one friendly word in a bright tone can delete the ____35____ of the conversation.”21. A. suggest B. realize C. imply D. emphasize22. A. analyzed B. addressed C. simplified D. discovered23. A. instructions B. revolutions C. associations D. negotiations24. A. get into B. turn away C. go against D. insist on25. A. pointed B. inspired C. motivated D. listed26. A. fort B. defend C. support D. protect27. A. actively B. positively C. negatively D. passively28. A. finish B. reject C. refuse D. interrupt29. A. persuade B. stimulate C. force D. tempt30. A. interacted B. worked C. responded D. initiated31. A. approach B. course C. evolution D. pattern32. A. impractical B. unimaginative C. critical D. illogical33. A. keeps back B. answers for C. agrees on D. launches into34. A. conflict B. disaster C. strike D. damage35. A. challenge B. debate C. worry D. silence【答案】21. B 22. A 23. D 24. C 25. D 26. A 27. C 28. D 29. A 30. B 31. B 32. C 33. D 34. A 35. A【解析】本文是一篇说明文。在交谈过程中,仔细选择你所说的话,能够让交谈发生转机。【21题详解】考查动词词义辨析。A. suggest建议;B. realize意识到;C. imply暗示;D. emphasize强调。我们被语言推动和牵制远远超过我们所意识到的。故选B。【22题详解】考查动词词义辨析。A. analyzed分析;B. addressed称呼;C. simplified简化;D. discovered发现。斯托克和她的同事们分析了数千小时的录音对话。故选A。【23题详解】考查名词词义辨析。A. instructions说明;B. revolutions变革;C. associations协会;D. negotiations协商;谈判。此处指上文提的conversation“交谈;会话”,与customer services和mediation(调解) hotlines并列,故选“negotiation(协商;谈判)”一词,指从客户服务到调解热线和警务危机谈判。故选D。【24题详解】考查动词短语词义辨析。A. get into对……发生兴趣;B. turn away把 ……打发走C. go against违反;D. insist on坚持。根据后句中医生与病人之间的对话的举例,可知,这些话有些令人吃惊,违背了教给我们所相信的东西。故选C。【25题详解】考查动词词义辨析。A. pointed指出;B. inspired鼓舞;C. motivated激发;D. listed列出。有证据表明,医生列出的可供选择的方案并非最好的方案,但却得到了更好的回应。故选D。【26题详解】考查动词词义辨析。A. fort安慰;B. defend防御;C. support支持;D. protect保护。根据后面的persuade提示可知,这里指我们正在弄清楚哪些词可能安慰或说服我们。故选A。【27题详解】考查副词词义辨析。A. actively积极地;B. positively绝对地;C. negatively消极地;D. passively被动地。斯托克发现,当被问及是否愿意参加调解时,当调解人使用这个短语时,那些已经做出消极反应的人似乎改变了主意。故选C。【28题详解】考查动词词义辨析。A. finish完成;B. reject排斥;C. refuse拒绝;D. interrupt打断。根据前句“As soon as the word ‘willing’ was used, people would say: ‘Oh, yes, definitely’可知,只要用了‘愿意’这个词,人们就会(打断)说:‘哦,是的,当然愿意’——他们实际上会打断句子以表示同意。故选D。【29题详解】考查动词词义辨析。A. persuade劝服;B. stimulate刺激;C. force强迫;D. tempt诱惑。医生试图说服人们去上减肥课。故选A。【30题详解】考查动词词义辨析。A. interacted相互作用;B. worked起作用;C. responded答复;D. initiated开始。根据后句转折but ‘willing’ was the one that got people to agree more rapidly and with more enthusiasm.可知,有时候,它们起作用。故选B。【31题详解】考查名词词义辨析。A. approach方法;B. course课程;C. evolution进化;D. pattern模式。Hello是一个非常重要的词,可以改变会话的过程。故选B。【32题详解】考查形容词词义辨析。A. impractical不切实际的;B. unimaginative缺乏想象力的;C. critical批评的;关键性的;D. illogical不合逻辑的。它是关于你如何回应那些我们称之为“先行者”的人——那些说一些非常关键的话的人。故选C。【33题详解】考查动词短语词义辨析。A. keeps back 阻止;B. answers for对……负责;C. agrees on对……意见一致;D. launches into投入。也许是对停车说些粗话的邻居。故选D。【34题详解】考查名词词义辨析。A. conflict冲突;B. disaster灾难;C. strike打击;D. damage 损害。根据前句Rather than respond in the same manner, saying something nice, such as a very bright ‘Hello!’, socializes that other person a little bit.” 可知,说一些好听的话,当你不想陷入冲突的时候就用它。故选A。【35题详解】考查名词词义辨析。A. challenge挑战;B. debate辩论;C. worry担心;D. silence沉默。但是,用欢快语气说一句友好的话可以消除谈话中的质疑。故选A。Section B (22分)Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.(A)Last summer, bird-watchers confirmed the discovery of a new species of bird in Cambodia was not an event of particular biological significance, but it was striking for one reason in part. This species of bird was discovered not in an unspoiled rain forest but within the limits Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh – a city the size of Philadelphia.What the researchers found was surprising in cities. The medium-sized city in the state about 110 species of birds, over 95 percent of which would have been growing there urbanization. Ecologically speaking, cities are different, concrete buildings. Rather, each unique bio-profile – a kind of ecological fingerprint – that is against the idea of an environment dead zone.Of course, it’s also true that in the world of birds and plants, as in human society, there is such a thing as worldwide—the city-inhabitants who feel equally at home in San Francisco, Milan and Beijing. Four birds occur in more than 80 percent of the cities studied, and 11 plants occurred in more than 90 percent of the cities. On the plant side, those are seemingly spread by European settlement. In the air, it’s the usual suspects: the rock pigeon and many other birds. “They have bee pletely adapted to urban life,”Katti says. “That’s not much of surprise. But they don’t actually dominate as much as we think they do.” Those species—occurring in the cities across the globe—represent only a small part of a city’s natural varieties.Not all cities are equal protectors of native animals and plants, though. One of the biggest predictors for a city’s biodiversity is its urban design. Territory as varied as backyards and street trees can lay important roles in greening a city. In fact, the amount of green space is a stronger predictor of the density of biodiversity than a city’s size. A metropolis with a sizable network of parks can contain more species per square mile than a much smaller city.In a world where architecture, food, language, fashion and merce are increasingly globalized, a city’s native animals and plants can be a kind of identity. There may be neighborhoods in London and Paris that resemble Singapore or Hong Kong. Cities are being similar, but their natural environments stand pletely apart.36. According to the passage, what do you think of Phnom Penh, Cambodia’s capital?A. It is full of various rare plants and animals.B. Its birds’ population is larger than that of San Francisco.C. It’s as big as Philadelphia in terms of area.D. It is on an equal footing with Beijing and Milan.37. Which of the following statements is NOT the same as the author’s idea?A. From a biological point new changes happen every day.B. From an environmental point the daily changes aren’t obvious enough.C. Each city has different characteristics in terms of ecological development.D. Different species of creatures are born in different cities.38. Some plants are found in many cities in the world, which seems to be a result of ____.A. natural selection B. globalizationC. urban development D. colonization39. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?A. What Surprising Cities! The Medium-sized City Has Various Species of Birds!B. The Power of Plants and Animals! The Charm of All the Cities!C. The Cities Are Concrete Jungles! Never Think about Them the Same Way Again!D. More Species Per Square Mile! The Amount of Green Space Is a Stronger Predictor!【答案】36. C 37. B 38. D 39. C【解析】【分析】本文是一篇社会类短文阅读。虽然城市的发展看似破坏环境,但事实要复杂得多。城市的确是水泥丛林!但是不要用和以前相同的方式去想它们!【36题详解】细节理解题。根据文章第二段This species of bird was discovered not in an unspoiled rain forest but within the limits Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh – a city the size of Philadelphia.可知,柬埔寨的首都金边和费城城市大小一样大。故选C。【37题详解】细节理解题。根据文章第二段Ecologically speaking, cities are different, concrete buildings.可知,就生态学的角度而言,城市并非可复制的钢筋水泥群落,城市是不断发展的,故发生着新变化,故A正确;Rather, each unique bio-profile – a kind of ecological fingerprint – that is against the idea of an environment dead zone.可知,每一个城市都有独特的“生物剖面”,故C正确;第四段Not all cities are equal protectors of native animals and plants, though.可知,不同的城市都有原生的动植物,故D正确。B选择项与作者的观点不同,故选B。【38题详解】细节理解题。根据文章第三段On the plant side, those are seemingly spread by European settlement.可知,这似乎是随欧洲殖民而传播的。故选D。【39题详解】主旨大意题。根据文章第二段Ecologically speaking, cities are different, concrete buildings.最后一段In a world where architecture, food, language, fashion and merce are increasingly globalized, a city’s native animals and plants can be a kind of identity.和Cities are being similar, but their natural environments stand pletely apart.可知,虽然城市的发展看似破坏环境,但事实要复杂得多。城市的确是水泥丛林!但是不要用与以前同样的方式去想它们!故选C。【点睛】文章考查到细节理解题,对此类题型,考生可以首先从问题中找到关键词然后以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技巧在文中迅速寻找这一细节找到后再把这一部分内容仔细阅读一遍,仔细比较所给选项与文中细节的细微区别。如小题1中选项中as big as Philadelphia与文中的the size of Philadelphia表达的同一个意思,这些都考生需要比较它们之间的细微区别。(B)Please Choose Cloud ServicesMay be unsure, or you do not know where to begin. Trying every Cloud service would take a lot of time and work. But, the website Reviews. might help.One valuable feature is the protection of digital files, including photos, videos, documents, music and more. If the worst happens and your puter crashes, or gets lost or damaged, your files can still found in the Cloud.Cloud services let you access your files from almost anywhere. No need to worry about a file stored on your puter when you are away from your desk. If you have an Internet connection, you can open your files from any puter, or from a phone, when they are stored using a Cloud service.Using a Cloud service makes sharing files easier. If you send documents to a group using emails, you may then wonder which version everyone is working with. When sharing files using a Cloud service, everyone will see the same document and the latest version.The first thing to consider is the amount of storage space you need. Check how much space you are currently using on your puter and mobile devices. If your puter or phone is filled with photos and you have little free space, you may want to move your photos to the Cloud. Some Cloud services are free. But, if you need a lot of space, you will probably need one that costs money.Even if everyone you have ever met is a Windows user, you still probably want a Cloud service that works with many platforms. You might bee friends with an Android user or start a job with a pany that puters on Apple!40. Which of the following is true according to the passage?A. Google-Drive users can obtain 100GB for free.B. Most Cloud services can send files to both the Cloud and the local puter.C. It’s hard to transfer your file when you turn on the puter if it is stored in the Cloud.D. Never worry about finding your files in the Clouds if the puter system crashes.41. What will you have to do if you need more space to store more files in the Cloud?A. To use your own Cloud services. B. To share Cloud space with others.C. To spend money buying space. D. To buy the latest version of the service.42. How can consumers find the Cloud service that suits them best?A. By learning more information about the space occupied by files.B. By paring Cloud’s function, storage, available space and prices.C. By sending files to a group of people via e-mail inquiring about the Cloud service.D. By making friends with Android users who use Apple puters.【答案】40. D 41. C 42. B【解析】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要讲述Reviews.这家网站帮助我们评测了4家不同的云服务。【40题详解】细节理解题。根据文章第二段If the worst happens and your puter crashes, or gets lost or damaged, your files can still found in the Cloud. 可知,即使电脑系统崩溃了,或者是丢失或损坏了,文件仍然能在云上找到。故选D。【41题详解】细节理解题。根据文章倒数第二段But, if you need a lot of space, you will probably need one that costs money. 可知,如果需要很多空间,可能需要花钱购买收费的云服务。故选C。【42题详解】细节理解题。根据文章表格和内容可知,通过比较云服务的功能、存储、可用空间和价格,消费者才可以发现最适合他们的云服务。故选B。(C)Is Paperless Office Really Paperless?A rising economy increased paper sales by 6 to 7 percent each year in the early to mid-1990s, and the convenience of desktop printing allowed office workers to indulge anything and everything. In 2004, Ms. Dunn, a munications supplies director, said that plain white office paper would see less than a 4 percent growth rate, a primary reason for which is that some 47 percent of the workforce entered the job market after puters had already been introduced to offices.For office innovators, the dream of paperless office is an example of high-tech arrogance(傲慢). Today’s office service is overwhelmed By more newspapers than ever before. After decades of development, the American government can finally get rid of the madness on paper. In the past, the demand for paper has been far ahead of growth in the American economy, but the sales have slowed markedly over the past two to three years, despite the good economic conditions.“Old habits are hard to break,” says Ms. Dunn. “There are some functions that paper serves where a screen display doesn’t work. Those functions are both its strength and its weakness.” Analysts attribute the decline to such factors as advances in digital databases and munication systems. Escaping our craving for paper, however, will be anything but an easy affair.“We’re finally seeing a reduction in the amount of paper being used per worker in the workplace,” says John Maine, vice president of a paper economic consulting firm. “More information is being transmitted electronically, and an increasing number of people are satisfied that information exists only in electronic form without printing multiple backups.”To reduce paper use, some panies are working to bine digital and paper capabilities. For example, Xerox is developing electronic paper: thin digital displays that respond to a stylus, like a pen on paper. Marks can be erased or saved digitally. Even with such technological advances, the increasing amounts of electronic data necessarily require more paper.“The information industry today is posed of a thin paper crust surrounding an electronic core,” Mr. Saffo wrote. The growing paper crust is most noticeable, but the hidden electronic core is far larger and growing more rapidly. The result is that we are being paperless, but we hardly notice at all. “That’s one of the greatest ironies of the information age,” Saffo says. “It’s just mon sense that the more you talk to someone by phone or puter, it inevitably leads to a face-to-face meeting. The best thing for the aviation industry was the Internet.”43. Which of the following statements is NOT a reason for the slowdown in American paper sales?A. Workforce with better puter skills.B. Slow growth of the U.S. economy.C. Changing patterns in paper use.D. Changing employment trends.44. What does the last sentence in Para 3 mean?A. We have to look at paper consumption from different angles.B. There is little chance that paper consumption will fall in the digital age.C. Paper consumption will be greatly reduced in the digital age.D. People are no longer so addicted to paper in the digital age.45. The innovations from Xerox and other panies feature ___.A. the intergration of digital technology with traditional paperB. the chance from traditional paper to digital technologyC. the bination of the use of puter screens and cell phonesD. a new type of puter writing and munication46. What can we draw from the example of the aviation industry in the last paragraph?A. The dream of the paperless office will be realized some day.B. People usually prefer to have face-to-face meetings instead of using puters.C. More digital data use leads to greater paper use in the digital time.D. Some people are no longer opposed to video-conferencing.【答案】43. B 44. B 45. A 46. C【解析】【分析】本文是一篇社会类短文阅读。随着信息化的发展,越来越多的公司实行无纸化办公,但是,无纸化办公真的无纸吗?【43题详解】细节理解题。根据文章第二段In the past, the demand for paper has been far ahead of growth in the American economy, but the sales have slowed markedly over the past two to three years, despite the good economic conditions.可知,尽管美国经济状况良好,纸张的销售却显著放缓。故选B。【44题详解】句意理解题。根据文章第三段Analysts attribute the decline to such factors as advances in digital databases and munication systems. Escaping our craving for paper, however, will be anything but an easy affair.可知,分析人士认为纸张的下降归因于数字数据库和通信系统的进步等因素。然而,要摆脱对纸张的迫切需要绝非易事。所以这句话可以理解为:在数字时代,纸张消费下降的可能性很小。故选B。【45题详解】细节理解题。根据文章第五段To reduce paper use, some panies are working to bine digital and paper capabilities.可知,为了减少纸张的使用,施乐公司与其他公司正在努力将数字和纸张功能结合起来。故选A。【46题详解】推理判断题。根据文章最后一段The result is that we are being paperless, but we hardly notice at all. “That’s one of the greatest ironies of the information age,” Saffo says. “It’s just mon sense that the more you talk to someone by phone or puter, it inevitably leads to a face-to-face meeting. The best thing for the aviation industry was the Internet.可知,信息时代最大的讽刺是我们正在变得无纸化,从而可以推断出在数字时代,更多的数字数据的使用导致更多纸张的使用。故选C。【点睛】推理判断题属于主观性较强的高层次阅读理解题,做这类题目时,同学们要严格依据作者所陈述的细节、事实以及作者的措词、态度和语气,找出能够表露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词句,然后利用自己已获得的相关知识进行推理判断,从而得出符合逻辑的结论。如小题4中考查最后一段举航空的例子,我们能得出什么结论。可以从原文最后一段的中心句That’s one of the greatest ironies of the information age再根据后面所举航空的例子,从而推断出答案。Section CDirections:Read the passage carefully. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.Traffic Regulation and Accident PreventionWe live in a remarkable time, and many of the once fatal diseases can now be cured with modern medicine and surgery. It is almost certain that one day a cure will be found for the rest of the diseases. Expectations of life have greatly increased. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible killing of men, women and children on the roads. Man fights against the motor-car. It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. ____47____Nothing can seriously increase your risk of potentially fatal car accidents other than speeding and failing to pay due attention to weather conditions. ____48____ There is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst qualities. Usually quiet and pleasant people, when they are behind the steering wheel, will bee unrecognizable. They are impolite, aggressive, self-willed like two-year-old, pletely selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments, and jealousy seem to be caused by driving.____49____ It’s all for his own convenience. Due to a serious tragedy, the city is almost uninhabitable and the huge parking lot makes the town ugly. The destruction of rural areas and the annual mass killings are just a statistic, easily forgotten. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are not strict and even the strictest are not strict enough.Traffic rules are for everyone to follow under any circumstances, and no one can make an exception unless you make a joke of your own life. Universally accepted standards can only have a significant beneficial on the incidence of accidents. Governments should develop safety codes for manufacturers. ____50____ These measures may sound cruel. However, if these measures result in a reduction in the loss of life every year, they should certainly not be considered serious. After all, the world belongs to humans, not cars.A. There are five reason for the accident and you are guilty.B. Every year thousands of people are horribly killed, and we sit still and let it happen.C. Surprisingly, society should smile at the driver and forgive him.D. Someone has rightly said that when a person is sitting behind the steering wheel, his car bees an extension of his personality.E. All advertisements that emphasize power and performance should be banned.F. It is time to develop a universal norm to reduce this senseless waste of human life.【答案】47. B 48. D49. C 50. E【解析】本文 是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了一些关于交通管制与事故预防措施,从而减少交通事故的发生。【47题详解】根据前句Man fights against the motor-car. It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. 人与汽车搏斗,这是一场人类正在输掉的永无休止的战斗,因此可知每年都有成千上万的人惨死,我们却坐视不理,听之任之。故选B。【48题详解】根据后句There is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst qualities.毫无疑问,汽车经常暴露出一个人最坏的品质,可知,汽车是一个人个性的延伸。故选D。【49题详解】根据后句It’s all for his own convenience.一切都是为了他自己的方便,可知,社会对司机微笑并原谅是令人惊讶的。故选C。【50题详解】根据前句Governments should develop safety codes for manufacturers.政府应该为制造商制定安全守则,和后句These measures may sound cruel.这些措施听起来可能很残酷,可知,作者建议所有强调汽车力量和性能的广告都应该被禁止。故选E。Ⅳ. Summary Writing.51.Directions:Read the following passage. Summarize the main idea and the main point(s) of the passage in no more than 60 words. Use your own words as far as possible.All Must Have DegreesIn a classroom in Seoul a group of teenagers sit over their desks in total silence. Study begins at eight in the morning and ends at half past four in the afternoon. And some even go back home at midnight. Like thousands of South Koreans, they are preparing for the important exam, which will largely determine whether they go to a good university or not. Degrees have bee useful. Seventy percent of students who graduate from the country’s secondary schools now go straight to universities.Many more countries have seen a big rise in the share of young people with degrees, but South Korea is an extreme case. As technological reforms require workers to do many difficult and demanding jobs that they would not have done before, there seems to be reasonable to insist that more workers receive a good education than before. And a degree is an obvious way for bright youngsters From poor families to prove their abilities. People tend to earn more if they have degrees.Employers do not have to pay for higher education and they are increasingly able to demand degrees to screen out the least motivated or capable. A recent study by Joseph Fuller and Manjari Romaan of Harvard Business School shows that panies routinely require applicants to have degrees, even though only a minority of those already working in the role have them.The Economist’s analysis found that between 1970 and 2015, the proportion of 256 workers aged 25-64 with at least a bachelor’s degree increased. Some of them are highly intellectually demanding jobs, such as aviation engineers. Others are non-graduate jobs such as waiting tables. Sixteen percent of waiters now have degrees, because probably in most cases they could not find jobs and live poorly. Today, having a degree is usually an entry requirement.【答案】In South Korea, the young study hard to get degrees for three reasons. Firstly, The rapidly changing technology is challenging, so employers care more about the education of workers. Having a degree is must. Secondly, with degrees, the youngsters from poor families can demonstrate their abilities. Lastly, people can earn more money. Without degrees, their life will be difficult. (60 words)【解析】【分析】此题要求根据文章写一篇不超过60字的概要。文章主要讲述在韩国,年轻人努力学习获得学位的原因。【详解】概要写作要求用自己的语言概括原文要点,要点间有衔接。概要写作可以分为三个步骤:要点获取、要点转述和要点衔接。获取要点的获取过程就是文本的解读过程,对于结构清晰的段落,可以通过筛选主题句找出要点,但是并不是所有文章都可以直接找出主题句,对于主题句不明确的文章或段落,也可以使用找关键词或设计问题的方法。中文要点提炼:(6个中写出3个,其中两个略有展开)在韩国学位尤其显得重要,原因如下:技术变革对工人要求很高;雇主对学位有要求;拥有学位成了入门级的要求;学位是出身贫困家庭年轻人证明自身能力的一个途径。有学位的人挣得也更多,没有学位生活很艰难。Ⅴ. Translation.Directions:Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.52. 晚上别喝太多的咖啡,会睡不着觉的。(or)53. 事实证明,保持快乐的心态会降低得心脏病的风险。(It)54. 乐观的人不会过分怀念美好的旧时光,因为他们正忙着创造新的回忆。(create)55. 追求稳定并不是什么坏事,很多时候这样的态度在促使我们提升自我、挑战难度、攀登高峰。(when)【答案】52. Don’t drink too much coffee at night, or you won’t be able to sleep.53. It is proved that keeping a happy mind reduces the risk of heart diseases.54. Optimistic people don’t miss the good old days too much, because they are busy creating new memories.55. The pursuit of stability is not a bad thing. (and) There are many times when such an attitude drives us to improve ourselves, challenge difficulties, and climb peaks.【解析】本题考查翻译,用括号所给的词将中文翻译成英文。翻译要注意句子的时态和语法的运用。【52题详解】考查祈使句。祈使句 + and/or,前面的祈使句表示条件,or或and引导的分句表示结果这里表示转折关系,故用or。故答案为Don’t drink too much coffee at night, or you won’t be able to sleep.【53题详解】考查名词性从句。翻译时句中用it作形式主语,真正的主语为从句thatkeeping a happy mind reduces the risk of heart diseases.,从句翻译时要注意动名词作主语。故答案为It is proved that keeping a happy mind reduces the risk of heart diseases.【54题详解】考查动词。翻译时注意短语be busy doing忙于做……,时态用一般现在时。故答案为Optimistic people don’t miss the good old days too much, because they are busy creating new memories.【55题详解】考查定语从句。先行词为times,在定语从句中作时间状语,故用关系副词when引导。故答案为The pursuit of stability is not a bad thing. (and) There are many times when such an attitude drives us to improve ourselves, challenge difficulties, and climb peaks.Ⅵ. Guided Writing.56.Directions:Write an English position in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.2018年11月5日-10日,首届中国国际进口博览会在上海成功举行。假设你是明启中学的高三学生卢平,学校英语报向全体高三学生进行征文,题目为“The CIIE in My Eyes”。你有意投稿,撰写一篇文章。稿件内容必须包含:1. 对“新时代,共享未来(New Era, Shared Future)”的理解;2. 首届进博会向世界传递了什么信息?对中国发展有何深远的影响?(中国国际进口博览会:China International Import Expo简称CIIE)_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________【答案】The first China International Import Expo (CIIE) will be held from November 5 to 10 in Shanghai. The theme of the CIIE is "New Era, Shared Future," which has rich connotations. The first implication of the new era is that countries around the world begin to realize the importance of imports. The second implication of the new era is that China has bee an important promoter and supporter of economic globalization. Shared future means it is win-win for both China and the whole world, and China itself will also benefit from CIIE.This will not only improve the welfare of China's consumers, but also make China's development more balanced and adequate, which will help to alleviate Chinese social principal contradiction.In sum, the CIIE provides opportunities for both China and the world, which means the world is entering a new era of shared future.【解析】【分析】本书面表达是一篇材料作文。就The CIIE in My Eyes为题向学校英语报撰写一篇文章。【详解】这是一篇提纲类作文,我们需要用正确的英语把给出的要点表达出来。具体内容为2018年11月5日-10日,首届中国国际进口博览会在上海成功举行。假设你是明启中学的高三学生卢平,学校英语报向全体高三学生进行征文,题目为“The CIIE in My Eyes”。你有意投稿,撰写一篇文章。稿件内容必须包含:1. 对“新时代,共享未来(New Era, Shared Future)”的理解;2. 首届进博会向世界传递了什么信息?对中国发展有何深远的影响?动笔前,一定要认真分析要点,理解要点要表达的含义,不能遗漏要点,跑题偏题。本作文中给出的要点比较具体,故需要准确表达。写作时注意准确运用时态,上下文意思连贯,符合逻辑关系,尽量使用自己熟悉的单词句式,同时也要注意使用高级词汇和高级句型使文章显得更有档次。特别注意在选择句式时要赋予变化。平时除了加强词汇积累,写作联系以外,还可以适当记忆一些类似的范文,这样在考试中可以起到事半功倍的效果。

上海市普陀区2019届高三英语上学期期末质量监控试题(含解析)

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