标签: 2012专转本英语词汇 辅导
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ppt " "英 语 复 习" "" "题型简介" "阅读理解(40分) 词汇与结构(40分) 完形填空(20分) 翻译(35分) 写作(15分) " " 2007-2010年专升本英语考试词汇及语法" "考情分析" "词汇与结构部分考查内容" "1. 词 词义及语境考查 固定搭配 2. 语法 时态及语态 情态动词及虚拟语气 其它语法知识 3. 句型" "动词种类" "行为动词Action Verbs" "系 动 词Link Verbs" "助 动 词 Auxiliary Verbs" "情态动词 Modal Verbs" "含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句中能独立作谓语。如:put run laugh" "She has some bananas. They eat a lot of potatoes. I’m reading an English book now." "本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。如:be look get" "His father is a teacher. Twins usually look the same. The teacher became angry." "本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示否定、疑问、时态或其他语法形式。如:be does did" "He doesn’t speak English.(否定) We are playing basketball. (进行时态) Do you have a brother?(疑问)" "本身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和数的变化。如:can must may" "You can keep them for two weeks. May I smoke here? We must go new." " 是考查的一个热点,从题设上看,主要有以下几个方式:     1)同一个动词,后面加上不同的小品词(即介词或副词);     2)不同的动词,后面加上相同的小品词;     3)动词不同,小品词也不同。最后一种应该是最难的,因为它考查面广,且灵活多变。动词短语在语言中具有极强的生命力和表现力。纵观近几年考试,集中考查的动词短语主要由make,take,set,give,put,carry,come,get,keep,look,cut等动词构成。" "动词短语" "动词短语" "动词短语是指动词和介词、副词或名词的习惯搭配。有关动词短语的测试点主要涉及结构上选用恰当的搭配词,不同搭配含意上的辨异及不同短语的辨异。需掌握以下要点: 1、根据动词短语的不同特点,掌握其运用规律。 (I)动词+副词(不及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. (2)动词+副词(及物) Please turn every light in the house off. " "" "2、熟悉同一动词和不同介词或副词、不同的动词和同一介词或同一副词搭配在意义上的差异。 (1)同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上的差异。如: hear from hear of look after look for (2)同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上的差异。如: ring back ring off ring up put away put up " "(3)不同动词和同一介词搭配时,在意义上的差异。如: look for , ask for, wait for, send for。 (4)不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上的差异。如: ①break out发生,爆炸; carry out 进行,开展; hand out分发; let out放出; look out当心, sell out卖完; set out出发; take out取出; work out算出 ②break down出毛病, come down落下来, get down下车, take down取下, write down写下。 " "常见高频动词短语" "1. break break away        摆脱;逃跑 break down       (机器)出故障;中断;分解 break into         闯入;打断;突然中断 break off          中断;折断;突然停止 break out          突然发生;爆发 break through      突破;克服;挣脱而出 break up          打碎;中断;分解 break in           破门而入;打断(谈话);" "1.When he heard his sentence,the man _________ . 2.Your health will _________if you work too hard. 3.Don‘t _________ when your teacher is speaking. 4.The two countries _________ their relations last month." "break in" "broke down" "break down" "broke off" "2. bring bring about        引起;造成 bring down        使倒下;使下降;使受挫折 bring forward      提出;提前(=put forward) bring into operation实施;使生效 bring out          显示出来;出版;生产 bring up           提出;教育;培养;吐出 bring back         把---送回;使想起;恢复 bring in           引进;挣得 " "3. call call for            需要;要求;邀请 call off            取消;停止 call on            看望;号召 call up            打电话;使人想起;召集 call at             访问 call in            请来;召集 call back          回电话;召回" "1. We called ____ Mike's house yesterday. 2. All ships sailing on the oceans call ________ help by radio in English. 3. I'll call ________ my uncle at Beijing Railway Station. 4. Let's call ________ a doctor for the little girl. 5. Many of these songs called ________ the workers to take up the struggle. 6. I shall call _____ him tomorrow." "at" " for" "for" "in" "on" "on" "4. Come Come at 攻击;向...冲去 come about        发生 come across       偶遇;碰到;讲清楚 come along        进展;成功;一道走 come down 下降;病倒;传下来 come off          发生;举行;成功 come on          快点;走吧;有进展 come out          出来;结果是出版 come round/around再现;恢复知觉;改变看法 come through      经历;获得成功 come to           苏醒;达到;总数为 come up          发生;走上前去;(时间)快到 come up to        达到(高度、程度);符合 come up against    碰到(困难) come up with      赶上;提出 " "1. I came _______ him first in Beijing. 2. Come _____, try it again. 3. I'll help you too if any beast comes _____ you. 4. It is impossible for a dead animal to come _ . 5. The airplane came _____ in that field." "down" " across" "on" "at" "to" "5. cut cut across         绕劲道穿过;超越;遮住 cut back           削减;终止;急忙返回 cut down          削减;减少 cut in             插嘴;打断;突然出来 cut off            切断;中断;隔绝 cut out            删掉;戒掉 cut short          中断;打断;缩短 " "1.Let‘s cut _____ the unimportant details. 2.The rope is two feet longer than we needed,so we cut _____ the extra length. 3.The telephone operator cut us _____ before we had finished our conversation. 4.The telephone operator cut _____ and said that I had already spoken 3minutes. " "out" "off" "in" "off" "6. carry      carry on          继续;坚持 carry out         执行;实施 carry through     帮助度过难关;完成;实现 7. die die away         渐弱 die down         熄灭;平静下来 die of            因----(病)死亡 die from         因----(外部原因)死亡 die out          灭绝;绝种 be dying to do sth. 迫切想做某事" "1.He carried _____ the plan without difficulty. 2.Perseverance will carry a man ______. 3.I expect my son to carry _____ the family tradition." "out" "through" "on" "8. give give away        赠送;颁发;泄露;告发;失去 give out          分发;公布;公开;用完(vi);耗尽(vi) give off          发出;放出 give up          放弃;自首;将-----交给某人(to sb.);对某人不报希望(on sb.) give in           屈服;投降;让步;上交;呈交" "1. In those days, he used to give _____ a part of his income to help his friend. 2. Both sides argued with reason, and neither would give _____. 3. If they are burned, they give _____ poisonous gases. 4. When they made ready to climb the next ridge(山脊), they found that their oxygen had given ______." "out" "off" "in" "away" "9. go go along         进展;陪同前往 go by            时间过去;经过;遵守 go down         下降;下沉;下跌 go for           去;选择;想要;攻击(用语言) go in for         从事;爱好;参加(选拔赛、考试等) go into           研究;调查,从事 go off            离开;爆炸;食品变坏;断电;熄灭;(与副词连用或用于疑问句)进行;发生 go on            继续进行;发生;上场 go out           离开;熄灭;过时 go over          浏览;仔细查看;检查;审查 go through       通过;经历(苦难);仔细检查 go up            上升;增长;涨价" "1. The crocodile went _____ under the water. 2. If you never read the newspapers, you'll never know what's going ______  in the world. 3. They went _____ their lessons together at night. 4. The police went _______ very room of the building." "through" "over" "on" "down" "10. get get through      浏览;翻阅;经历困难(痛苦);做完某事 get in      收割;收获;收集;购买;买进;插话 get over  克服;战胜;熬过;做完;结束;走完 get on      继续;进行;上车 get round 传播;散播;说服某人;回避;避开 get about  四处走动;传开 get across 传达;使---让人理解 get along/on (with) 进展;相处 " "1. The bank robbers used a stolen car to get _____. 2. Have you got _____ the book you lent him? 3. This mistake may get him _____ difficulties. 4. It took us only four minutes to get _____ the Customs(海关). 5. Before I could get _____ a word, he had measured me, and was giving orders for evening suits, ..." "in" "through" "into" "back" " away" "有着共同介词的动词短语" "1.动词+about (8) bring about引起,使发生 care about关心,对...有兴趣 come about发生 hear about听说 set about 着手,开始 speak/talk about谈论 think about思考 worry about为...担心 " "2.动词+away (14) blow away吹走 break away摆脱 carry away拿走,使入迷 clear away清除掉,消散 die away逐渐消失 give away背弃,泄露 pass away 去世 put away收拾起来,存起来 send away让走开 take away拿走 throw away 扔掉 turn away把...打发走 wash away冲走 wear away磨掉,消耗" "3.动词+at (18) aim at向...瞄准 call at拜访地点 come at 向...袭击 glance at匆匆一瞥 glare at怒视 knock at敲门,窗等 laugh at嘲笑 look at看,注视 point at指向 " "4.动词+back (6) call back回电话 give back归还 hold back控制住 keep back隐瞒,忍住 look back回顾 take back拿回,收回 " "5.动词+down (13) break down坏了,垮了,分解 bring down使...降低,使倒下 burn down 烧毁 calm down平静下来 come down下落,传下 cut down削减,砍倒 pass down 传下来 put down记下,写下,镇压 settle down 安家 slow down慢下来 " "6.动词+for (18) apply for申请 ask for要求得到 beg for乞求 call for要求,需要 care for关心,喜欢 change for用...换 charge for收费,要价 come for来拿,来取 hope/wish for希望得到 " "7.动词+from (9) date from始于...时候 die from因...而死 differ from与...不同 hear from收到...来信 keep/stop/prevent from不让...做 learn from向...学习 result from由于 separate from把...分离开 suffer from受...苦 " "8.动词+of (10) approve of赞成 become of发生...情况,怎么啦 complain of抱怨 consist of由...组成 die of死于 dream of梦到 hear of听说 speak of 读到 talk of谈到 think of想到 " "9.动词+off (21) break off打断 carry off携走,带走 come off脱掉,褪色 cut off切断,断绝 fall off跌落,掉下 get off脱下衣服等 get off下车 give off散发出 go off走开,消失,坏了 " "10.动词+on (18) bring on使...发展 call on拜访 carry on继续,进行 depend on依靠 feed on以...为生 have on穿着 insist on坚持 keep/go on继续 live on以...为生 look on 旁观 " "三词以上的短语动词(" "add up to总计 break away from摆脱 catch sight of看见 catch up with 赶上 come into being出现 do away with废除 do well in在...干得好 get close to接近 get down to认真开始 get into the habit of染上...的习惯 get on/along with和...相处 " "get out of逃避,避免 get rid of摆脱 get used to习惯于 go on with继续 help oneself to随便吃,用 keep an eye on堤防 keep away fro避开,别靠近 keep in touch with保持联系 keep up with 赶上 look down on 轻视 look forward to盼望 look up to仰望,尊敬 take pride in为...而自豪 take the place of取代 " " 1. Can you make a sentence to         the meaning of the phrase?     A. show off   B. turn out     C. bring out  D. take in " "本题答案为:〔C〕.句意为“你能造一个句子来阐明这个短语的意思吗”?show off意为“炫耀、卖弄”,turn out意为“结果是(出乎意料)”,take in意为“理解、领悟、受欺骗”,而bring out意为“拿出、解释、说明”,所以选C. " "2. His mother had thought it would be good for his character to      from home and earn some money on his own.     A. run away     B. take away     C. keep away     D. get away " "本题答案为:〔D〕. run away意为“逃跑”,take away意为“拿走、带走”,keep away意为“使……远离或不靠近”,而get away意为“离开”,所以选D. " "  4. It was not a serious illness, and she soon       it.     A. got over     B. got on with     C. got round     D. got out of" "本题答案为:〔A〕. get on with意为“进展、与……相处”,get round意为“说服、笼络某人”,get out of意为“逃走、从……中摆脱出来”,而get over 意为“康复、复原”,所以选A" "5. Before the war broke out, many people       in safe places possessions they could not take with them.     A. threw away     B. put away     C. gave away     D. carried away" "本题答案为:〔B〕. throw away意为“扔掉”,give away意为“泄露、赠送”,carry away意为“带走、带离”,而put away意为“把……放起来/收起来、储存、备用”,所以选B." "3. He was in hospital for six months. He felt as if he was from the outside world.     A. cut out     B. cut off     C. cut up     D. cut through " "本题答案为:〔B〕. cut out意为“裁剪、删除”,cut up意为“切碎、打伤”,cut through意为“从……中开辟出一条路”,而cut off意为“切断、中断”,所以选B. " "7. It’s ten years since the scientist          on his life’s work of discovering the valuable chemical.     A. made for     B. set out     C. took off     D. turned up " " 本题答案为:〔B〕. make for意为“走向、驶向、有助于、有利于”,take off意为“脱下、起飞、成功、取消”,turn up意为“出现、露面”,而set out意为“开始、着手”,所以选B" "8. —        for the glass!     — It’s OK. I’m wearing shoes.     A. Look out     B. Walk out     C. Go out     D. Set out " "本题答案为:〔A〕. Walk out意为“走出去”,Go out意为“出去”,Set out意为“出发、开始、着手”,而Look out for意为“小心、提防”,所以选A." "6. It is certain that he will         his business to his son when he gets old.     A. take over     B. think over     C. hand over     D. go over " "本题答案为:〔C〕. take over意为“接管、接收”,think over意为“努力思考”,go over意为“复习”,而hand over意为“交接、转移”,所以选C. " "10. The final examination is coming up soon. It’s for us to         our studies.     A. get down to     B. get out     C. get back for     D. get over " " 本题答案为:〔A〕. get out意为“使出去/离开、逃脱”,get back for意为“回来、取”,get over意为“爬过、克服、恢复”,而get down to意为“开始、着手”,所以选A. " "1.—How lovely these children are! —Yeah.They______ memories of my childhood. called out B. called for C. called up D. called on 2. Many kids ________ the net bar, and _____had a bad effect on their studies. A. are addicted to; it B. get engaged in; which C. are related to; what D. are addicted to; which " "9. He accidently        that he had quarreled with his wife and that he hadn’t been home for a couple of weeks.     A. let out     B. took care     C. made sure     D. made out" "本题答案为:〔A〕. take care 意为“小心、照顾”,make sure意为“确保、确信”,make out意为“使出来”,而let out意为“透露、泄露”,所以选A." "3.After studying in a medical college for five years, Jane____her job as a doctor in the countryside. A.set out B.took over C.took up D.set up 4. Though we _________serious natural disasters, we are sure to overcome all difficulties. give away B. affect with C. suffer from D. deal with" "5. The shop assistant was fired as she was _________ of cheating customers. A.accused B.charged C.blamed D.caught 6. Asked suddenly about the matter ,he couldn’t_____an answer at once. A. come up with B. look for C. put up with D. answer for" "7.My daughter is not sure what to___ at the university; she can’t make up her mind about her future. take up B. make up C. pick up D. build up 8. His colleagues ______ him though he himself didn’t think he had done anything special. A. thought highly of B. looked up to C. sing high praise of D. show great respect for" "9. Hard work and lack of sleep have _____ her beauty and youth in recent years. A. worn out B. tried out C made out D.sent out " "高频词汇辨析" "1. abandon  desert  discard  quit abandon:  放弃,丢弃,抛弃。指因为外界的压力或影响完全放弃,因迫不得已而放弃,如: abandon obligation desert:  抛弃,舍弃,指某人或某物在困境中“被抛弃”。 desert the baby after giving birth 生下婴儿后将其抛弃。 discard:  丢弃,抛弃(老朋友或旧物)。discard one’s old friends quit: 离开,退出,突然放弃。指主动放弃或离开。 quit one’s job " "" "2. abolish ;cancel ; remove;eliminate  abolish: 废除,强调对法律或旧习惯的废除。 abolish slavery cancel: 取消,强调对原定的会议、计划、安排等取消。 cancel the meeting 取消会议。   remove: 出去,撤去。强调位置的移动或从远处消失。 remove the stain from clothes eliminate: 除去,剔除,淘汰。强调使彻底消失。 eliminate sb. from competition eliminate poverty " "" "3. abuse  curse  condemn  criticize  abuse: 谩骂,辱骂;滥用,虐待。指出口恶言骂人。  He can use his gifts, and not abuse them. curse: 诅咒,咒骂。表示愤怒或嫉恨。 As I say: Bless him, or curse him.   condemn: 谴责,强调由于不良行为或过失而受到强烈谴责。用于正式、严肃的场合。 We all condemn cruelty to women and children   criticize: 批评某人,强调指出某人的错误或不足之处。 He openly criticized the plan as impracticable." "" "4. accelerate  speed  hasten  quicken  accelerate: 加速,既可指使物体加快速度运动,也可指使事情进程加快。 accelerate the economic growth speed: 加速,指事物快速运动。 This man was not qualified to drive and was speeding. hasten: 赶快,催促。指急忙地做某事。 The crisis gives us the opportunity to hasten this process quicken: 加快。指富有生机地将动作在更短的时间内完成。 We have to quicken our pace " "" "5. accumulate  assemble  collect  gather accumulate: 积累,积聚。指有规则地、逐渐地不 断地大量积聚(知识、财物等)。 accumulate wealth 积聚财富。 collect: 收集,指有选择地为了爱好而收集。 collect coins gather: 聚集,集合。指将分散的人或东西集结到 一起。 gather flowers 采集花朵。" "" "6. accuse  charge  scold  blame accuse: 指控,指责。当面指控或指责,不一定诉诸法律。 accuse sb. of doing sth. 。 charge: 控告,控诉,因犯较大错误或重大罪行进行法律控诉。 charge sb. with sth. 。 scold:(愤怒地)责骂,训斥,谩骂。搭配为:scold sb. for sth. 。 blame: 责备,指责,责怪。 搭配为:blame sb. for sth.或blame sth. on sb. 。" "" "7. achieve  accomplish  complete  finish  achieve:   达成,完成。指借努力而获得一定成就。  Even if we achieve great success in our work, we should not be conceited accomplish: 完成,指成功地完成了任务或目标。  To accomplish his own end, he placed collective interests in the back of his mind complete: 完成,指圆满地完成了一项工程或作品等。 He will assist you to complete the task finish: 完成,指“结束,使完结”,尤指日常事情的完成。" "" "8. acknowledge  admit  confess  recognize  acknowledge: 承认,指“公开承认”事情的真 实性,常用于过去隐瞒或否认之事。  Anyhow Tony intended to acknowledge him as his son. admit: 承认,指在外界压力、证据下不得不 承认,含有“不情愿”之意。  Don't try to explain away the situation. If you have made mistakes, just admit them. confess: 坦白,供认,忏悔。指带有严肃色彩地承认过错或 罪恶,含有“忏悔、坦白”之意。 I must confess something to you recognize: 承认,认出。正式用词,指“承认••••••的合法性、真实性”等。 We didn't recognize them until they closed on us. " "" "9. acquire  attain  gain  obtain  acquire: 获得,习得。指持续地、慢慢地获得,多用于通过学习而获得知识、技能、语言等。 to acquire an education 受教育 to acquire learning 学到知识(或:获得学问)  attain: 获得,达到。指经过相当长的时间或很大努力而得到期望已久 的东西。 Whenever you have an aim you must sacrifice something of freedom to attain it.   gain: 赢得,指通过相当的努力或拼搏得到有价值的东西。 This should help you gain trust   obtain: 获得,得到。指凭借努力或恳求得到急需的很想得到的东西。 It is difficult to obtain reliable evidence. You can also obtain knowledge through practice " "" "10. adapt  adjust  regulate  coordinate adapt: 使适应,使适合。指修改或改变以适应新环 境。搭配为:adapt to sth. 如:adapt to the climate adjust: 调整,对准。指稍作调整以完全符合或适应,语气比 adapt弱。搭配为:adjust to sth. 如:adjust to the heat of his country;Adjust 后接具体事物时则表示“调节,调整”。 如:adjust a camera regulate:调节,调整;以规章制度控制管理。指按所需规律 进行调整从而使事物保持正常状态。 如:regulate traffic 管理交通。 coordinate: 协调,调节。强调使(各部分、肢体等)协调, 或协调动作。 如:coordinate the function of government 协调政府的作用。" "" "11. advise  persuade  convince  prevail advise: 劝告,忠告,建议。可作及物动词或 不及物动词 The minister advised him to leave as soon as possible. I would strongly advise against it. persuade:说服,劝服。 We're trying to persuade manufacturers to sell them here. convince: 使相信,说服。后跟介词of,或接that从句。指使 某人相信或说服某人而产生共识。 Although I soon convinced him of my innocence, I think he still has serious doubts about my sanity. prevail: 劝导,引诱,劝说。指劝说某人去做 某事,后接介词on或动词不定式短语。" "" "12. alter  convert  transform  shift alter: 修改,变动。指局部的、表面的小变化。 alter a suit 改动衣服的尺寸。 convert: 使改变,转变。指从一种形式、用 途等转变为另一种。 convert forests into farmlands transform: 使变形,使改观。指事物在形状上 的变化。 transform the society shift: 强调位置、地点、方向上的变化。 shift one’s position 改变立场。" "" "13. announce  declare  proclaim  claim announce: 宣布,发布。强调第一次“宣布,公开声明”,指宣布公众期望或与众有关的事情,如书籍的出版,物品的发售,人的死亡、结婚、暴风雨和微机的来临等。 We dashed off a letter to announce the news. declare: 宣布,宣告。指正式,负责的“宣布、声明”战争、和平、中立、意见、结果等。  He declared he would not run for a second term as president proclaim: 公布,声明。指权利机关或政府领导在公共或正式场合向广大群众宣布重大事件,如公布政策、法令、戒严、计划等。 The new government in Venezuela set up its own army and proclaimed its independence. claim: 声称,主张,要求。指自称如何或提出某种要求。 A man claiming to be a journalist threatened to reveal details about her private life. " "" "14. anticipate  expect  hope  await anticipate: 预料,期望。强调事先有准备的。指以恐惧或高兴的心情等待着所期望或猜想的事情发生。  The general misread the enemy's intentions, and didn't anticipate the attack expect:预料,指望,期待。指有一定根据地盼望某事会发生或某人回来。 I expect to see my uncle   hope:希望,期望。指热切期望并对获得所期待之物的可能性方面有一定的信心。 await: 期待,等候。指满怀期望地等待,暗含肯定性。 We await your decision.; We are expecting you to make a decision " "" "15. appeal  attract  fascinate  tempt  appeal:吸引,迷住。搭配为:appeal to sb. 既可指感官上 的吸引,也可指情感或理智上吸引。 attract: 吸引,引起••••••的注意。强调引起冲动或引起兴趣。 attract one’s attention fascinate: 使••••••着迷。指强烈的吸引,所表达的 程度比本组内其他词更深。 The children were fascinated by the toys in the big department store. tempt: 吸引,吸引••••••的兴趣。指用诱人的条件使 某人做某事。 Cars like that may tempt drivers to speed. " "" "16.appreciate  enjoy  relish  cherish appreciate: 欣赏,赏识,重视。指通过理解和鉴别事情的能力来充分欣赏该事物 I appreciate your generosity in the matter.。 enjoy: 欣赏,享有,喜欢。指由于心理的满足而喜欢、享受某种乐趣或某种权利。 relish: 从……中得到乐趣,享受。尤指对食物的享受。 I relish the challenge of doing jobs that others turn down. cherish: 珍视,珍爱。指珍爱某一意念或一种感情而将其善藏心中。 Life is hope, so we should cherish life。 " "" "17. argue  dispute  quarrel  debate  argue: 辩论,争论。指与某人争论,而某人是错误的,使对方信服你使正确的。 The committee is concerned about players' behavior, especially arguing with referees. dispute: 辩论,争论,对•••••• 质疑。指怀疑,某事而进行激烈的争辩。 We disputed with each other on various issues.  quarrel: 争吵,吵架。指大声争吵,埋怨对方无尽无休。  debate: 争辩,辩论。尤指再公共场合如集会或国会中所进行的辩论。 The United Nations Security Council will debate the issue today. " "" "18. assure  ensure  insure  reassure assure: 使某人相信,向某人保证。搭配为:assure sb. of sth.或assure sb. that, eg:assure safety of the operation 确保手术成功。 ensure:保证,确保。常用于:ensure that••• 或ensure sth.(如:success, safety, supplies)句型。 insure: 保险,投保。搭配为:insure••• against,如:insure one’s house against fire给房子投保了火险。 reassure: 使安心,使放心。搭配为:reassure sb. about sth. 。 " "" "19. agree  consent  comply  approve   Agree:同意,答应。指就做某事取得一致意见。与介词 with连用,指同意某人、某方或某种见解。有时与介 词to连用,指同意某事、赞成某一建议、计划、决定 或办法。 consent: 同意。指答应某人已经提出或可能要你做的事。 He finally consented to go. comply: 同意。comply与consent同义。 Some beaches had failed to comply with environmental regulations.   approve: 赞成。日常用语,指某人、某事是正确的或令人满意的后接介 词of " "" "20. arise  arouse  rise  raise arise: 产生,出现,发生。强调事物产生的结果, 主要用于问题、困难等不好的事情的产生、发 生、出现,不及物动词。 You have one idea, they have another, and problems arise   arouse: 唤醒,引起,激起,指激起唤起某人的情感,常接 anger, curiosity, fear, interest, sympathy, suspicion 等体现感情、情绪、心理、态度之类的词 We must arouse them to fight with enemies rise: 升起,上升,上涨,不及物动词。 He wanted to be over the line of the ridge before the sun had risen.   raise:举起,提高,及物动词。 They had raised the white flag in surrender. " "名词" "大纲要求掌握: 可数名词与不可数名词 可数名词的复数形式 名词的所有格 名词在句子中的作用 词义辨析" "可数名词与不可数名词" " 名词分可数与不可数两种:可数名词表示某类人或东西中的个体。如table, country. 或表示若干个体组成的集合体。如 family, people, committee, police. 不可数名词表示 无法分为个体的实物。如air, tea, furniture, water. 或表示动作、状态、品质、感情等 抽象概念。如work, information, advice, happiness. 注意:有些名词在一种场合下是可数名词,在另一种场合下是不可数名词。如room , time等。 There are nine in the house. There isnt enough for us three in the car . 不可数名词的数量可以通过在其前面加单位词来表示。如 一块肉 a piece of meat 两条长面包 two loaves of bread 三件家具 three articles of furniture 一大笔钱 a large sum of money" "rooms" "room" "可数名词的复数形式" "可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。名词复数的构成如下: 1.一般情况下在名词后加-s.如:girls, books. 2.以s, x , ch, sh结尾的词在名词后加-es.如:glasses, boxes, matches, bushes. 3.“辅音字母+y”结尾的词,变y为i再加-es.如:city-cities, country-countries. 4.以o结尾的词多数加-es.如:heroes, tomatoes, potatoes. radios, zoos, photos, pianos, kilos 例外。 5.f, fe 结尾的词,多数变f,fe为v再加-es.如:thief-thieves, leaf-leaves, half-halves, life-lives, wife-wives, knife-knives. 少数名词有不规则的复数形式。如:man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, child-children, mouse-mice. ★可数名词复数一般情况下考不规则复数形式。 个别名词的单数和复数的形式是一样的。如Chineses, Japanese, sheep, deer." "名词的所有格" "名词的所有格表示所属关系, 起形容词的作用。 当名词表示有生命的东西时,所有格一般是在词尾加 's . 如:Jean's room, my daughter-in-law's friends,      如果名词已经有了复数词尾s, 则只需加'。如:the teachers' books, my parents' car. 时间名词的所有格在后面加's ,复数加' .如:today's newspaper, five minutes' walk. 当名词表示无生命的东西时,所有格常由“of”短语构成。 如:the top of the world, the cover of the book, Chinas capital. ★名词所有格考试常见部分是 名词表示没有生命的东西时,不能直接在其后加s. 时间名词所有格在其后加's,或复数名词后直接加'。" "名词在句子中的作用" "名词在句子中可以作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、表语、定语,有时可以作状语。 名词、代词或其他结构作主语时,谓语动词在人称和数上必须与主语保持一致。 1.主语是可数名词单数时,谓语动词用单数形式;主语是复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。 The number of the students attending the party is increasing. ★the number of 表示数量,无论后面名词是复数还是单数,谓语动词 是单数形式。 Two-thirds of the shop belongs to me. 几分之几作主语,谓语是单数形式。 Both of us are studying English. ★总结:在名词作主语时,the number of 谓语动词单数形式; 几分之 几,谓语单数形式; both 谓语使用复数形式。" "名词部分考试重点" "可数名词与不可数名词     可数名词复数形式重点掌握不规则形式,单、复数相同的名词。 名词所有格重点掌握时间名词所有格在其后加s,复数加。 名词在句中的作用 词义辨析" "" "2、主语是不可数名词、不定式或动名词词组、从句时,谓语动词用单数形式。 All the money he received was given to his mother. Forgetting the past means betrayal. What we are talking now is useless." "" "3.主语部分若有as well as, with, together with, like, but, except等短语,谓语动词的单、复数与短语前面的名词一致。 Mary,as well as her two sisters, a student of this school. No one except my friends anything about it." "is" "knows" "Good-bye!
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