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ppt " "Section Ⅳ Grammar & Writing" "定语从句(Ⅰ) 一、概念 A plane is a machine that can fly." "1.定语从句:在复合句中作定语修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两类。本单元主要讲述关系代词引导的限制性定语从句。 2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词,叫做先行词。" "3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫做关系词。关系词分为关系代词(that,which,who,whom,whose,as等)和关系副词(when,where,why等)两类。关系词通常有三个作用:(1)连接主从句;(2)指代先行词;(3)在定语从句中充当一个句子成分。" "例如:A plane is a machine that can fly. 上面例句中的that can fly即为定语从句,其前面的名词machine是被定语从句修饰的词,叫做先行词,that是引导定语从句的词叫做关系代词。" "二、关系代词的基本用法" "三、只用that不用which引导定语从句的情况" "四、只用which不用that引导定语从句的情况" "定语从句注意事项 1.关系代词在从句中作主语时,根据先行词的单复数决定从句谓语动词的单复数。 ①He is the only one of the students who knows French.(the only one为先行词) ②He is one of the students who know French.(students为先行词)" "2.关系代词的省略:在限制性定语从句中,关系代词作动词宾语或介词宾语(这时介词不能在关系代词前)时常可省略。 The boy (that/who/whom) we saw last night was Li Ming." "3.the same...as与the same...that引导的定语从句的区别:前者修饰的是与原物相似的东西;而后者修饰的就是先行词所指的东西。 ①This is the same watch as I lost. 这和我丢的那只手表一样。(不是同一只) ②This is the same watch that I lost. 这就是我丢失的那只手表。(同一只)" "4.such后可接as引导的定语从句,也可接that引导的结果状语从句。 " "①I hope to get such a pen as he is using.我希望得到一支像他在使用的一样的钢笔。(定语从句) ②I hope to get such a pen that I can do my homework with it without using others’.我希望得到一支钢笔,这样我就能用它做作业而不用借别人的。(结果状语从句)" "Ⅰ.用that,who,whom,which,whose完成下列句子 1.This is the person________you should thank for helping your son. 答案: who/that/whom 2.The man________is standing there is a famous writer. 答案:  who/that" "3.The pen________he bought yesterday is the same as mine. 答案:  that/which 4.The house________is at the corner of the street is painted red. 答案:  that/which" "5.The boy________name is Tom es from America. 答案:  whose 6.It is said that the chair________leg is broken is worth a lot of money. 答案:  whose" "7.This is the best film________has been shown so far in the city. 答案:  that 8.I have many friends to________I am going to send postcards. 答案:  whom" "9.We should do everything________we should do. 答案:  that 10.The beautiful girl________we often talk about is Li Ping’s sister. 答案:  that/who/whom" "11.Who________you have ever known can sing it better? 答案:  that 12.I still remember the people and the things________I met in my hometown. 答案:  that" "13.The only thing________I can remember is the big fire. 答案:  that 14.I don’t know the boy________is sitting behind you. 答案:  who/that 15.He asked about the factories and workers________we had just visited. 答案:  that" "Ⅱ.单项填空 1.Tom is good at maths,so I think he is the student________can help you to work out this problem. A.whom    B.who C.which D.what" "解析: 先行词the student指人,定语从句中缺主语,因此应用who引导定语从句。 答案:  B" "2.I’m not sure whether this is the book________my brother read the year before last. A.whose B.as C.what D.which" "解析: 先行词the book指物,定语从句缺少宾语,因此应填which引导定语从句。关系代词as引导限制性定语从句时,仅用于the same...as...,such...as...等句型中。 答案:  D" "3.I’m sorry that I don’t know much about American films,because this is the first American film________I have ever seen. A.which B.that C.what D.as" "解析: 先行词American film前面有序数词the first修饰,因此只能用that引导定语从句。 答案:  B" "4.Some great people said it was their primary school teachers and their lessons________they were fond of________influenced their whole lives. A.which;that B.that;which C.which;which D.that;that" "解析: 第一空考查定语从句的引导词。因先行词中既含有人又含有物,所以用that。第二空用that构成It was...that...强调句型。 答案: D" "5.Which of the two cows________you keep produce more milk? A.that B.which C.whom D.what 解析: 主语是以which开头的特定疑问句,所以要用that引导定语从句。 答案: A" "6.The most important thing________we should pay attention to is the first thing________I have said. A.which;that B.that;which C.which;which D.that;that 解析: 当先行词前有形容词最高级或序数词修饰时,定语从句用that引导。 答案:  D" "7.Mount Wuyi is such an attractive place of interest________everyone likes to visit. A.that B.as C.which D.what" "解析: “such+名词”后接从句时,若引导词在句中作主语、宾语、表语等成分,则用as引导定语从句。该句中引导词在从句中作visit的宾语,故用as。若引导词在从句中不作成分,则用that引导结果状语从句。 答案:  B" "8.This is the boy without________help I couldn’t have passed that difficult exam. A.who B.whom C.whose D.that" "解析: 先行词the boy指人,定语从句缺少定语,因此该空应填whose引导定语从句。 答案: C" "9.The boy________is cleaning the blackboard now is Tom’s best friend. A.that B.whom C.whose D.he 解析: 先行词是“人”,关系代词用who/that。 答案: A" "10.The man makes full use of the time________he can spare. A.with which B.when C.it D.that 解析: 先行词是“物”,并且作spare的宾语,所以关系代词用which/that。 答案:  D" "11.Look out!Don’t get too close to the house________roof is under repair. A.whose B.which C.of which D.that" "解析: 此题考查定语从句。句意为:“小心!不要靠近这所房子,房顶正在修理”。从结构上看,“________roof is under repair”是定语从句修饰house。从意义上看,空格处应填一个表示“这所房子的”的关系代词,所以要用whose。 答案:  A" "12.He told us the stories and the writers ________interested him. A.that B.which C.what D.who" "解析: 在修饰两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时用that。在此句中that修饰stories和writers,它既可修饰人也可修饰物,又在从句中作主语。 答案:  A" "13.Anything________could be found has been used to repair the damaged bridge. A.which B.that C.what D.how 解析: 考查定语从句。当先行词为anything等不定代词时,关系代词用that而不用which。 答案:  B" "14.Those________want to see the film please write down your names here. A.them B.what C.whose D.who 解析: 当代词those用做先行词且指人,并在从句中作主语时,关系代词通常使用who。 答案: D" "15.This is the factory________we visited the other day. A.where B.in which C.there D./ 解析: 先行词在定语从句中作宾语可以省略,本题省略了that/which。 答案:  D" "描写:报纸文章 一、题目要求 请根据所给提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍当今中国教育的基本情况。 要点:1.九年义务教育,六岁入学; 2.初中毕业后,可入高中或职业学校; 3.在高校,部分费用由家庭承担; 4.中国教育尽管成绩巨大,但仍需要改革。 注意:1.词数:100左右; 2.内容要适当发挥,注意行文连贯。" "二、关键词语" "三、连词成句 1.当今中国的教育发展迅速。 Education in China today has been developing rapidly. 2.在上大学之前,学生们必须通过很多考试。 Students have to pass a series of examinations before entering a college or university. 3.尽管中国的教育发生了很大的变化,但还有许多方面需要改进。 Though great changes have taken place in the field of education in China,there is still much to be improved." "四、构思谋篇