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ppt 科技英语写作教程4V

科技英语句法的一些原则

 版权申诉  ppt " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "修辞问题 第1章. 统一性原则 (A节)违反主从关系 一、主从颠倒 例 1 Transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to study air-borne particulates collected in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, which are seriously damaged by acid rain. 本文利用透射电镜和X-射线的衍射技术,对酸雨危害较为严重的重庆市区大气颗粒物样品进行了较为细致的研究工作。 " "主谓宾? X, Study, samples. Transmission electron microscope什么成分 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 主句与从句颠倒,“利用透射电镜和X-射线衍射技术”是从句中的内容不要把这样的内容译到主句中。 改译为: Using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction method, we have studied samples of air-borne particulates collected in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, which are seriously suffered from acid rain. 或 By using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction method, studies were carried out on samples of air-borne particulates collected in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, which are seriously suffered from acid rain. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "例 2 IABS model which could be used to select some kinds of regulatory mutants with high efficiency, was based on definite selectors and moderators,.... IABS模型可基于一定的选择剂和调节剂高效地选择某些调控突变体…... " "主谓宾,X, use, IABS, regulatory mutants" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 主句与从句颠倒,“可基于一定的选择剂和调节剂”是从句中的内容不要把这样的内容译到主句中。 改译为: IABS model, (which was) based on definite selectors and moderators, was used to select some kinds of regulatory mutants with high efficiency, ..." "科技英语句法的一些原则" "二、主从并列 例 1 The order form was directed t the wrong plant; that is why it could not be filled and returned in time. 因定单送错厂家,故未能按期填好送回。 " "是并列句吗?" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 两句是主从关系句。 改译为: Because the order form was directed to a wrong plant, it could not be filled and returned in time. 或 The order form could not be filled and returned in time because of its delivery to a wrong plant. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 The total area under natural protection reaches 19,330, that accounts for 2.1% of the total area of China. 自然保护区面积达19,330 公顷,占我国总面积的2.01%。 " "句中的that为什么错?" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 两句是主从关系句。 改译为: The total area under natural protection reaches 19,330, which accounts for 2.1% of the total area of China. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "三、主从隔离 例 1 …, the calli were transferred to differentiation media (D1D4). On which, 100% of the calli produced shoots, and the shoots rooted by transfer to rooting medium (R). 愈伤组织转入分化培养基(D1D4),分化出苗率达成100%,将苗转移到生根培养基(R)上幼苗即可生根。 " "1、by transfer处有什么问题?" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 两句是主从关系句,而上述句子主从被隔离,另外并列句意思不完整结构有错。 改译为: …, the calli were transferred to differentiation media (D1D4), on which 100% of the calli produced shoots and the shoots rooted after being transferred to rooting medium (R).. 另外, by transfer to (原句上的)结构不能表达与主语的确切关系。本身不能表达明确的意思。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "(B节)意思不完整或不明确 一、成分残缺 例 1 Coke has proved to be more efficient than any fuel we have tried. 焦炭已被证明比我们试验其他任何燃料更为有效。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: Any fuel就包括Coke。 改译为: Coke has proved to be more efficient than any other fuel we have tried. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 The division frequency of protoplasts was lower in the liquid medium than that embedded in the medium containing agarose. 原生质体在液体培养基中的分裂频率低于包埋在含有琼脂糖的培养基中的分裂频率。 " "that在句中指什么,如果that指division of frequency,那么句子怎么写" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 这个that只能代替the division of frequency,因为它是主语,而protoplasts是定语, 不能代替protoplasts。 改译为: The division frequency of protoplasts was lower in the liquid medium than that of those embedded in the medium containing agarose. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 3 The lower grain weight of tested line “10-A” was found to be controlled by six recessive genes, located on chromosomes 5A, 1B, 2B, 6B, 2D and 7D, respectively. The decreasing effects of genes on chromosomes 1B and 2B were obviously larger than those on chromosomes 5A, 6B, 2D and 7D. In other words, there are two major genes on 1B and 2B; and four minor genes on chromosomes 5A, 6B, 2D and 7D respectively. 被测材料“10-A” 粒重低受5A, 1B, 2B, 6B, 2D 和 7D等染色体上的隐性基因所控制,从其减少效应的程度看,1B和2B染色体上的基因表现为强效。5A, 6B, 2D 和 7D染色体上的基因表现为弱效。 " "1、考虑是什么的减少效应;2、也是什么的减少效应" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: those on chromosomes表示染色体的减少效应,而不是染色体上的基因的减少效应。我们要的是后者的意思。所以要写成those of genes。Reduction effects是指粒重的减少效应,而不是genes on chromosomes的减少效应,所以要加上on grain weight。 改译为: The reduction effects of genes on chromosomes 1B and 2B on grain weight were obviously higher than those of genes on chromosomes 5A, 6B, 2D and 7D. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "二、结构混乱 例 1 There was much higher inhibitory effect on the does of 4,000 Gy, however, the root tuber appeared some damage after irradiation and showed relatively serious dried rot after one month’s storage. 4000Gy照射抑菌效果更高,并对根外表有伤害,贮藏一个月后易产生干腐。 " "这句话的主语是什么?" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: There was much higher inhibitory effect on the does of 4,000 Gy,这一个并列句结构混乱,这一句的意思只能是“有一个更高的抑制效应在(on)4,000Gy这个剂量上。”也就是“对4,000Gy这个剂量有一个更高的抑制效应” 改译为: After the roots tubers were exposed to 4, 000 Gy, higher inhibitory effect was produced on the fungi, however, damages also appeared on the root tuber and dried rot could often occur after one-month storage. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 Owing to these changes of basic equilibrium state, with the result that the basic characters of dynamics will be changed. 由于这些基本的平衡的变化,将导致动力学基本特征的变化。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 句子结构混乱,因此不能成为一个完整的句子,只有短语和从句。 改译为: The basic characters of dynamics will changed because of the changes of basic equilibrium state. 或 the changes of basic characters of dynamics results from the changes of basic equilibrium state. 或 The changes of basic equilibrium state will lead to the changes of basic characters of dynamics. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 三、概念不明确 例 1 The mutagenic effects of the two kind mutagens have also been compared in this experiments. It was found that -rays were better than fast neutrons;.... 在这个研究中,比较了两种诱变因素的诱变效果,发现 射线快于中子...。 " " 射线的什么快于中子?中文行得通而英语却不行!" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 1. Two kind mutagens要改为Two kinds of mutagens。2. 时态问题。3. 不是射线优于快中子,而是射线诱的变效果优于快中子的诱变效果。 改译为: The mutagenic effects of the two kinds of mutagens, -rays and fast neutrons, were compared in this experiments. It was found that the effect of -rays was better than that of the fast neutron;.… 第一节完" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "第2章. 连贯性原则 (A节)叙事基调突然改变 一、叙事对象主体突然改变 例 1 A micro-computerized measuring system is developed. An I-V characteristic curve can be automatically acquired in 5 seconds with an accuracy of 0.05%. 研制了一个微机测量系统,这个系统可在5秒钟内自动获得I-V曲线,精度为0.05%。" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 第一句的主体A micro-computerized measuring system 突然变成了An I-V characteristic curve,上下文就没有联系了,不连贯了。 改译为: A micro-computerized measuring system is developed which can automatically produce an I-V characteristic curve with an accuracy of 0.05% in 5 seconds. 或 A micro-computerized measuring system, with which an I-V characteristic curve with an accuracy of 0.05% can automatically be acquired in 5 seconds, is developed A micro-computerized measuring system is developed and it can automatically produce an I-V characteristic curve with an accuracy of 0.05% in 5 seconds. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 (2006-11-15) The lowest detectable concentration for Cl and SO was 1.2 and 1.4g/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviation was below 10%. Cl和SO的最低可测浓度分别为1.2和1.4g/ml,相对标准差低于10%.。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 主体突然改变。 改译为: The lowest detectable concentrations for Cl and SO were 1.2 and 1.4g/ml respectively with relative standard deviation below 10%. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 二、数的突然变化 例 1 The desert ecosystems with rare plant cover are still used for grazing and other purposes in China because of the population pressure. It is a kind of fragile ecosystem that is very difficult to restore once it is extinct and eventually turns into mobile sand. 我国由于人口压力大,覆盖很少植被的沙漠生态系统仍然被用于放牧或其他目的。这种生态系统非常脆弱,一旦消失很难再恢复,最终变成流沙。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: The desert ecosystems与It is a kind of fragile ecosystem用在同一段落中。 改译为: The desert ecosystem with rare plant cover is still used for grazing and other purposes in China because of the population pressure. It is a kind of fragile ecosystem that is very difficult to restore once it is extinct and eventually turns into mobile sand. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 三、时态突然变化 例 1 A procedure for selection of the wave-length combination is presented, and a computer program was made to select the best wave-length combination. (see page 10) 提出了选择波长组合方法,并编制了程序,用计算机程序来选择波长组合。" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 并列句时态不一致。另外to select主语不明确。 改译为: A procedure for selection of the wave-length combination has been presented, and a computer program has been developed for the best wave-length combination. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 In this paper, the extraction of fission product from nitric acid and effect of gamma ray irradiation on their extraction ability by OCLA is described. All studies about OCLA were compared with TBP at the same experimental condition. 本文研究了(用OCLA方法)对硝酸裂变产物进行了萃取,以及射线照射对其萃取力的影响,并在相同条件下对OCLA和TBP进行了比较。" "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 两句时态不一致。另外句中的their没先行词,意思不明确,还有is described中的is也有问题。 改译为: In this experiment, the extraction of fission product from nitric acid and effect of gamma ray irradiation on the extraction ability by OCLA were studied, and all studies about OCLA were compared with TBP at the same experimental condition. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (B节)缺少必需的连接词或过渡性词 例 1 In soil, organic acids can dissolve Zn, the decrease of redox potential can enhance the effect of Mn. 土壤中的有机酸可溶解锌,氧化还原电位下降则提高猛的有效性。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 两个句子不能用逗号连接。 改译为: In soil, organic acids can dissolve Zn, while the decrease of redox potential can enhance the effect of Mn. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 Bioengineering is also a kind of engineering. It is an engineering that is different from that with conventional sense. 生物工程也是一种工程,是一种与传统意义截然不同的工程。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 逻辑转折表现得不顺畅。 改译为: Bioengineering is also a kind of engineering. However, it is an engineering that is different from that with conventional sense. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (C节)平衡关系被破坏 一、并列平行关系失衡 例 1 During digestion in the enzyme solution some spontaneous fusion of protoplasts could be observed and the fused protoplasts were generally large, cytoplasmic dense and varied in shape. 在酶的解液中进行消化期间,可以观察到一些原生质体自然融合,融合的原生质体体积大、胞质浓、形状各异。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 1、large, cytoplasmic dense and varied in shape平衡结构出错。2、digestion 对象不明确。如果与主句的主语不构成明确关系,我们就可以称之为“悬垂”短语。(见45页) 改译为: During digestion of material in the enzyme solution, some spontaneous fusion of protoplasts could be observed and the fused protoplasts were generally large in size, dense in cytoplasm, and different in shape. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 Therefore, we suggest that more protected areas, even if they are small, should be established to protect more forest habitats as soon as possible, in order to conserve and enhance the bio-diversity in China. 因此,我们建议建立更多的自然保护区(即使规模不大),尽可能多地保护森林生境,保护和提高我国的生物多样性。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 句中的to protect, to conserve and enhance 为并列结构,都表示目的状语。 改译为: Therefore, we suggest that more protected areas, even if they are small, should be established to protect more forest habitats as soon as possible, to conserve and enhance the bio-diversity in China。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 3 The committee decide to cancel its law suit, approving the contract, and that it would adjourn the meeting. 委员会决定取消诉讼,承认和同并决定暂时休会。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 并列结构不一致。 改译为: The committee decide to cancel its law suit, to approve the contract, and to adjourn the meeting. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 二、比较对象不一致 (意思不完整或不明确的成分残缺部分(page 11) 例 1 The results indicated that the content of ADM target liposomes in the tumor tissues was higher apparently than free ADM. 结果表明,靶向脂质体组阿霉素(ADM)在肿瘤组织的含量明显高于游离阿霉素组。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 句中的the content与free ADM二者没有可比性。(更多的例子11页以及以后的页) 改译为: The results indicated that the content of ADM target liposomes in the tumor tissues was higher apparently than that of the free ADM. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (D节)悬垂短语 Dangling phrase,指句子主语没有联系的短语修饰语。 英语中的大忌。 一、悬垂分词短语 例 1 Having reviewed the technical report, several mistakes were found in it. 审查技术报告后,发现里面有数处错误。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 现在分词短语的悬垂结构。 改译为: After the technical report was reviewed, several mistakes were found in it. 或 Having reviewed the technical report, I (They, We…) found several mistakes in it. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 Based on the biological geographical characters, lakes in China can be divided into five major groups. 中国湖泊根据其生物学和地理学特征分为五大类。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 悬垂结构特例。用based on这个词组时,主句的主语一般为人称。另外,当用based on这个词组时,通常是没有办法使得主句的主语同样成为从句的主语。 如:We have come to the conclusion, based on the last week‘s satellite landing. 但这一句是不能写成: We have come to the conclusion, basing on last week‘s satellite landing. 因为base是一个及物动词,写成basing on就成了一不及物动词了。 本来应该按以下句子写,但是英语中见不到这样写。 We have come to the conclusion, basing information on the last week‘s satellite landing. We have come to the conclusion. The information is based on the last week’s satellite landing. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 改译为: On the basis of their biological geographical characters, lakes in China can be divided into five major groups. 或 Lakes in China can be divided into five major groups according to the biological geographical characters. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "悬垂结构的例外有以下词与结构: Generally speaking, men can run faster than women. Strictly speaking, nobody is allowed in here. Broadly speaking, dogs are more faithful to their masters than cats. Seriously speaking, do you intend to resign? Putting it frankly, I don't approve of her. Taking everything into consideration, they ought to be given another chance. Supposing there was a war, what would you do? Considering everything, it wasn‘'t a bad holiday. Judging from his expression, he's in a bad mood. I’ll lend you the money providing you pay it back before Christmas. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 二、悬垂不定式 例 1 In order to increase the efficiency and safety of landfill, it is necessary to apply GIS (Geographical Information System) to conduct multi-factor and multistory analysis on the basic conditions of landfill sites. 为了提高废渣填埋法的效率和安全性, 有必要应用地理信息系统对废渣填埋要点进行多因素和多层面的分析。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 不定式的悬垂结构。 改译为: In order to increase the efficiency and safety of landfill, we applied GIS (Geographical Information System) to conduct multi-factor and multistory analysis on the basic conditions of landfill sites. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 In order to practice sustainable development and conserve marine environment, a great attention should be paid to reinforce awareness of marine environmental monitoring, increase investment and strengthen the monitoring in “hot spots” as well as biological monitoring to avoid marine calamity. 为保护海洋环境,促进海洋经济发展,必须提高对海洋的环境监测的认识,增加投入,加强“热点”海域的监测,减少海洋灾害的损失,加强海洋生物的监测,避免潜伏的海洋灾害发生。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 不定式的悬垂结构。 改译为: In order to promote the development of sustainable marine economy and conserve marine environment, we should pay great attention to reinforcing awareness of marine environmental monitoring, increasing investment and strengthening the monitoring in “hot spots” as well as biological monitoring to avoid marine calamity. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 三、悬垂介词短语(比较page 2) 例 1 After removing the outmost leaves, the material was cleansed with 70% ethanol for surface sterilization. 材料去掉外面的叶子后,用70%乙醇进行表面消毒。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 介词短语悬垂结构。(page 2 伴随状况的介词短语结构) 改译为: the material was cleansed with 70% ethanol for surface sterilization after its outmost leaves were removed. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 After analyzing the structure of turbulence in convective boundary layer (CBL), it is first suggested that the vertical diffusion CBL can be simulated by turbulence on two different scales, and then a simple random walk diffusion model for CBL is developed. 通过对对流边界(CBL)湍流结构的分析,首次提出用两种不同尺度的湍流来模拟CBL中的垂直扩散。在此基础上发展了一个随机扩散模式。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 分词的悬垂结构。 改译为: After analyzing the structure of turbulence in convective boundary layer (CBL), we have first indicated that the vertical diffusion CBL can be simulated by turbulence on two different scales, and then developed a simple random walk diffusion model for CBL. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (E)代词无先行词或先行词不明确 例 1 After prolonged ischemia, re-perfusion of the heart leads it to a stunned state, resulting in severe myocardial damage. 心脏长时间缺血后,灌注将导致休克状态,结果造成严重心肌损伤。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: It 指代re-perfusion还是heart不明确。此外,after prolonged ischemia还是一个悬垂结构。 改译为: After prolonged ischemia, the heart will be led to a stunned state if it is re-perfused, resulting in severe myocardial damage. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 The isotope determination of carbonate in soil samples pretreated by different method is compared. The result show that soil organic carbon has no effect on the determination of both carbon and oxygen isotope; however, it is generally affected by pretreatment method of burning with O2. 比较了经过不同预处理方法的土壤样本中碳酸盐同位素值的测定,结果表明土壤有机碳的存在不影响碳、氧的同位素组成的测定,经过有氧烧灼预处理土壤样品对分析结果有明显影响。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 从上下文看,译文中的it的先行词不明确。根据汉语上下可知it的先行词是the determination。 改译为: The isotope determination of carbonate in soil samples pretreated by different method is compared. The result show that determination of both carbon and oxygen isotope is not affected by soil organic carbon, but is significantly affected by pretreatment method of burning with O2. To be continued " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "逻辑问题 (第1章)概念不准确 (A节)概念转移 例 1 Using this program, experimental time is reduced, while RAPD patterns is not changed, thus, it increases efficiency of RAPD-analysis. 采用这一方案,缩短了实验时间而保持RAPD图谱不变,因而提高了RAPD分析的效率。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: using this program为一悬垂结构。主语应该是人,而在主句中,这一“概念”被偷换成experimental time。 改译为: By using this program, experimental time can be saved, while RAPD patterns remain unchanged, and thus the efficiency of RAPD-analysis is heightened. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 Osmotic protection showed no beneficial effect except for the young nodules. 除了小节结,渗透的保护没有显示出任何效果。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 本来是渗透的保护没有显示出任何效果,但是在词组except for后“概念”被偷换了,变成了小节结没有显示出任何效果。实际上,小节结应该是no beneficial effect on的介词家宾语。 改译为: Osmotic protection showed no beneficial effect except for on the young nodules. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 3 D+ is determined by three factors: (i) the surface of critical nucleus, (ii) the effective kinks on the surface and (iii) the flux of monomers arriving at the surface. D+ 是由临界表面积,表面有效扭折数和到达表面的单原子通量决定的。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: “临界表面面积”被偷换“临界表面”以及“有效扭折数”被偷换“成有效扭折”。 改译为: D+ is determined by three factors: (i) the surface area of critical nucleus, (ii) the number of effective kinks on the surface and (iii) the flux of monomers reaching the surface. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (B节)概念升级或降级 例 1 At present, little has been done in the studies on genetic diversity as well as biodiversity in our country. 目前,关于生物多样性,特别是遗传多样性的研究在我国开展的很少。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 把关于生物多样性,特别是遗传多样性两个不是并列的概念并列了,也就是把遗传多样性升级成与生物多样性并列的概念。 改译为: At present, little has been done in the studies on genetic diversity, especially on biodiversity in our country. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "(C节)概念扩大(周延) 例 1 There was a high frequency which might reach 48%-65% and a wide variation range in R generation, while the frequency of its controlled (callus not treated with -rays) was 32%-38%.  R代变异范围很宽,总变异频率达48%-65%,而未经照射的对照组,其第一代总变异频率为32-38。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 在本句中译者把variation frequency 的概念的外延扩大成frequency。High frequency的意思是高频,显然不能“表达频率范围很宽”。另外,a wide variation range in R generation与什么并列?句中的its指代也有问题。 改译为: There was a wide variation frequency for the treated group(R ), and the total variation frequency reached as high as 48%-65% while for the controlled group in the first generation the variation frequency was only 32%-38%. 或 For the treated group(R ), a wide variation frequency was observed and the total variation frequency reached as high as 48%-65% but only 32%-38%. for the controlled group in the first generation. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "(D节)概念歧义 例 1 The high rate of glucoamylase cDNA containing clones in the cDNA bank of strain T21 proved evidence of high steady state level of glucoamylase mRNA in mycelium of mutant T21. Obviously, it is one of the major reason for the high glucoamylase productivity of mutant T21. 在菌株T21构建的cDNA库中含糖化酶cDNA插入片断的克隆的高比率充分证明,菌株T21中稳态糖化酶mRNA含量很高,显然这是突变株T21糖化酶高产的重要原因之一。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 句中的it有太多的歧义,表示什么?1. The high rate of glucoamylase cDNA containing; 2. glucoamylase cDNA containing clones ;3. evidence of high steady state level of glucoamylase mRNA;4.前面的整个句了。5. high steady state level of glucoamylase mRNA . 改译为: The high rate of clone containing glucoamylase cDNA fragments in the cDNA bank of strain T21 proved evidence of high steady state level of glucoamylase mRNA in mycelium of mutant T21. Obviously, this high steady state level is one of the major reason for the high glucoamylase productivity of mutant T21. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (E节)概念不呼应 例 1 The conditions and factors that have influences on the agent to remove arsenic from waste water were discussed. The result showed that the production and application of the agent are simple, effective, and economical. 探讨了这种净水剂(the agent)在含砷废水处理中的应用条件和影响因素。结果表明,该净化剂的生产及处理含砷废水的工艺简单,经济,高效。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 通过discussion,后面的应该接conclusion, 而不是result。 改译为: Both the application conditions and efficiency-affecting factors of the agent in removing arsenic from waste water were investigated. The result showed that the technological processes for both the production and application of the agent are simple in operation, low in cost, and high in efficiency. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (第2章)判断不恰当 (A节)主客倒置 例 1 Thus, the study on the structure of PVC grains and the formation process of the particles has been paid great attention to by researchers in this field. 因此,对树脂粒子结构和成粒过程的研究日益受到关注。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 这一句的本来结构是: Researchers in this field have paid great attention to the study on the structure of PVC grains and the formation process of the particles。 这一句如果改为被动语态主语应该是great attention而不是the study, 这就是把great attention这个“主”倒置成“客”了。 改译为: Thus, great attention has been paid to the study on the structure of PVC grains and on the formation process of the particles by researchers in this field. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 The Raman scattering spectrum of 2 of the four vibrational fundamental frequencies in CH4 was much more difficult to be observed. 很难观察到CH4 中四种振动基础频率2 的罗曼散射谱。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 这一句的本来结构是: To observe the Raman scattering spectrum of 2 of the four vibrational fundamental frequencies in CH4 was much more difficult。 可改译为 It was much more difficult to observe the Raman scattering spectrum of 2 of the four vibrational fundamental frequencies in CH4 . 所以说某个问题(problem)很难,做某件事很难很合理,但是,如果说某种现象很难就不好了。例如: The Raman scattering spectrum of 2 of the four vibrational fundamental frequencies in CH4 was much more difficult... " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 3 If it is supplied mainly by reduced nitrogen, the small cells would ultimately in in interspecific competition. 如果主要提供还原态氮,则较小的细胞将在种间竞争中占优势。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 句中的it是一个不需要的次要关系项,它没有先行词,无需保留。由于这个词的出现,造成了主客倒置。 改译为: If the reduced nitrogen is mainly supplied, the smaller cells will ultimately dominate in the interspecific competition. 或 if supplied mainly with the reduced nitrogen, the smaller cells will ultimately dominate in the interspecific competition. 或 If the smaller cells are supplied mainly with reduced nitrogen, they will ultimately dominate in the interspecific competition. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (B节)自相矛盾 例 1 The above-mentioned group of chemical substances do not dissolve in alcohol, only one of which dissolves in ethanol. 上面提到的一组化学物质除一种可溶于乙醇外,其余都不溶于醇。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 由于概念不明确造成译文判断自相矛盾。因为only one of them是包含在the group of chemical substance mentioned above。 改译为: The above-mentioned group of chemical substances do not dissolve in alcohol except that one of them can do in ethanol. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 The curative effect of this new drug on gastric carcinoma was better than that of any anticarcinogen we applied to patients. 这一新药结胃癌的疗效优于我们以前给病人用的任何抗癌药物。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: any anticarcinogen we applied to patients 已包含 this new drug。而汉语原文中的“以前”两字就使得其中的逻辑关系变得明确。 改译为: The curative effect of this new drug on gastric carcinoma was better(higher) than that of any anticarcinogen that we had before applied to patients. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 3 Even the international authoritative sources will have to agree that the product developed in this laboratory is better than that in any laboratory all over the world. 即使是国际权威人士也不得不承认该实验室研制的这一产品优于世界上任何其他实验室的产品。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 这是一个我们较熟悉的问题。any laboratory包含this laboratory。 改译为: Even the international authoritative sources will have to agree that the product developed in this laboratory is better than that in any other laboratory all over the world. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (C节)无效判断 例 1 When the apple fruits were irradiated with gamma rays, the ethyl acetate in them was resolved while the pure product of ethyl acetate was not influenced. 苹果用射线辐照后,其乙酸乙酯被分解,但对照乙酸乙酯纯品不受影响。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 注意纯品乙酸乙酯是作对照的,说明也已被照射。而在译文中没有反映出来,显然是一个无效判断(Null judgement)。 改译为: When the apples, together with the pure preparation of ethyl acetate (as the controlled), were irradiated with gamma rays, the ethyl acetate in fruit was resolved, while the pure ethyl acetate was not influenced. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 It was found that there was clear inhibitory effect on hypha and sporangia during a 7-day period when doses of 200 and 400Gy were used, but little on conidia and chlamydospores. 发现在一个7天长的时间段中,200Gy及400Gy剂量的辐照对菌丝体的囊孢子有一定的抑制作用,对分生孢子、厚垣孢子抑制作用甚微。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 状语从句when doses of 200 and 400Gy were used 仅修饰there was clear inhibitory effect on hypha and sporangia during a 7-day period而与but little on conidia and chlamydospores无关。也就是说but little on conidia and chlamydospores是一个无效判断。 改译为: Significantly inhibitory effect of -rays on hypha and sporangia, but little on conidia and chlamydospores were found when they were exposed to 200 and 400Gy of -rays for a 7-day period. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (D节)前后概念不一致 例 1 Multiphase flow is a new and developing discipline on the basis of hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer, physiochemistry, combustion theory and other disciplines. 多相流是在流体力学传热传质学,生物化学,燃烧学等多学科的基础上发展起来的一门新兴学科。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: multiphase flow是一种自然现象,不具有学科的性质。后面定义为“”新兴学科,显然前后概念不一致。 改译为: The study of multiphase flow is a new and developing discipline on the basis of hydrodynamics, the study of heat and mass transfer, physiochemistry, combustion theory and other disciplines. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "(E节)歧义判断 例 1 We got more report from Combustion Division than the Aerodynamics Division. 我们的由燃烧部得到的报告多于得自气体动力学部的报告。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 造成歧义的原因是由于省略了the Aerodynamics Division前的介词from。 改译为: We got more report from Combustion Division than from the Aerodynamics Division. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (F节)次序颠倒或混乱 例 1 In 1877, using the cyclic integrals, Routh reduced the equation of motion holonomic conservative systems, and obtained the Routh’s method of order reduction. 1877年,Routh利用循环积分将完整保守系统的运动方程降阶,建立了著名的Routh降阶法。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 原译文的意思不清楚,好像是Routh得到(obtained)另一个Routh的方法。 改译为: In 1877, using the cyclic integrals, Routh reduced the equation of motion holonomic conservative systems, from which the Routh’s method was developed. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "(G节)判断内概念之间逻辑关系混乱 例 1 In this paper, a new alcoholic fermentation technology is studied, which is combined with low temperature cooking process and immobilized yeast fermentation technology from dried sweet potato mash with dregs. 本研究将低温发酵工艺与固定化酵母发酵技术结合起来,开发一项用甘薯干粉作为发酵原料的乙醇发酵工艺。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: a new alcoholic fermentation technology (which) is combined with low temperature cooking process and immobilized yeast fermentation technology (这种新技术与低温发酵工艺和固定化酵母工艺结合起来),这显然不是原文的意思,另外从甘薯干粉中也不会产生出新技术(…technology from dried sweet potato mash with dregs)。主语a new technology 与谓语studied也不呼应。 改译为: In the present research, a new alcoholic fermentation technology is developed with dried sweet potato mash dregs as material, in which low temperature fermentation process and immobilized yeast fermentation technology are combined. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "(第3章)推理不正确 (A节)推理的根据不正确 例 1 (该例子前面有过) When the apple fruits were irradiated with gamma rays, the ethyl acetate in them was resolved while the pure product of ethyl acetate was not. Therefore, it is concluded that gamma irradiation has significant effect on the ethyl acetate in apples but has no effect on the pure ethyl acetate preparation 苹果用射线辐照后,其乙酸乙酯被分解,但对照乙酸乙酯纯品不受影响。因此,可以得出以下结论:射线辐照对苹果中的乙酸乙酯有效,但对乙酸乙酯纯品无效。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 注意纯品乙酸乙酯是作对照的,说明也已被照射。而在译文中没有反映出来,显然是一个无效判断(Null judgement)。因此,the pure product of ethyl acetate的判断无效,后面所作的推理has no effect on the pure ethyl acetate preparation也是不可靠的。 改译为: When the apples, together with the pure preparation of ethyl acetate (as the controlled), were irradiated with gamma rays, the ethyl acetate in fruit was resolved, while the pure ethyl acetate remained unchanged. Therefore, it is concluded that gamma irradiation produces significant effect on the ethyl acetate in the fruit but no effect on the pure acetate preparation. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "(B节)推理的结论不完整或不明确 例 1 By using this method, no variation of the ability on synthesizing and secreting -amylase was observed among grains of homozygous wheat plants (H2) derived from anther culture; but some variations with altered hormone sensitivity occurred among somaclonal plants (SC1). The result showed that this screening method is feasible. 应用这种方法,在花培纯系内籽间未发现变异;在体细胞无性系的籽粒间发现了对激素敏感性改变的变异体。表明了该筛选方法的可行性。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 原译有两个判断作为推论this screening method is feasible的根据或条件。而这两个判断恰好相矛盾。因此推论“这种方法是可行的”应说明是对哪种情况而言。 改译为: By using this method, no variation of the ability on synthesizing and secreting -amylase was observed among grains of homozygous wheat plants (H2) derived from anther culture; but some variations with altered hormone sensitivity occurred among somaclonal plants (SC1). The result showed that this screening method is feasible for screening hormone sensitivity variation among SC1 plants. End " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " (C节)无效判断 例 1 When the apple fruits were irradiated with gamma rays, the ethyl acetate in them was resolved while the pure product of ethyl acetate was not influenced. 苹果用射线辐照后,其乙酸乙酯被分解,但对照乙酸乙酯纯品不受影响。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 注意纯品乙酸乙酯是作对照的,说明也已被照射。而在译文中没有反映出来,显然是一个无效判断(Null judgement)。 改译为: When the apples, together with the pure preparation of ethyl acetate (as the controlled), were irradiated with gamma rays, the ethyl acetate in fruit was resolved, while the pure ethyl acetate was not influenced. " "科技英语句法的一些原则" " 例 2 It was found that there was clear inhibitory effect on hypha and sporangia during a 7-day period when doses of 200 and 400Gy were used, but little on conidia and chlamydospores. 发现在一个7天长的时间段中,200Gy及400Gy剂量的辐照对菌丝体的囊孢子有一定的抑制作用,对分生孢子、厚垣孢子抑制作用甚微。 " "科技英语句法的一些原则" "问题: 状语从句when doses of 200 and 400Gy were used 仅修饰there was clear inhibitory effect on hypha and sporangia during a 7-day period而与but little on conidia and chlamydospores无关。也就是说but little on conidia and chlamydospores是一个无效判断。 改译为: Significantly inhibitory effect of -rays on hypha and sporangia, but little on conidia and chlamydospores were found when they were exposed to 200 and 400Gy of -rays for a 7-day period.








































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