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doc 2019-2020年高中英语必修9Module6Section2BackgroundInformation 1. Something about Samuel Johnson 塞缪尔·约翰逊(1709-1784):英国散文家、文艺评论家、词典编撰家。约翰逊博士是十八世纪英国文坛的祭酒,他曾费时七年独立完成睥睨英国文坛的《英文字典》,而他如大熊星座君临众星的魅力,则在他那充满人生智慧的谈论对话、罕见的巧妙言谈、那意想不到的比喻、卓越的修辞、洋溢的机智中体现。 Samuel Johnson was born in Lichfeld as the son of a bookseller. His childhood was marred by ill health: a tubercular infection affected both his sight and hearing and his face was scarred by scrofula. Johnson was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford. His father died in 1731 and left the family in poverty. Johnson's studies were cut short and he returned to Lichfield, affected by depression which haunted him for his life. He worked as a teacher at the grammar school in Market Bosworth and published his first essays in the Birmingham Journal. In 1735 he married Mrs Elisabeth Porter, a widow 20 years his senior. They started a school at Edial, near Lichfeld, but the school did not prosper. Johnson's lack of degree and convulsive mannerisms hindered his success as a teacher. Two years later they moved to London where Johnson worked for Edward Cave, the founder of The Gentleman's Magazine. When he applied to a publisher for employment, he was found unfit for the job. "You had better get a porter's knot and carry trunks," he was advised. The death of the poet Richard Savage, who was Johnson friend, gave rise in 1743 to his first biographical work. He addressed to Lord Chesterfield his Plan of a Dictionary of the English Language in 1747 and worked for eight years with the project. Lord Chesterfield refused to support Johnson while he was at work on his dictionary and later Johnson wrote: "This man I thought had been a Lord among wits; but I find, he is only a wit among Lords." A patron was in his Dictionary "one who countenances, supports or protects. monly a wretch who supports with insolence, and is paid with flattery." Johnson's longest poem, THE VANITY OF HUMAN WISHES, appeared in 1749. On that same year his tragedy IRENE was staged and appeared at Drury Lane. Between the years 1750 and 1752 he edited Cave's magazine The Rambler, writing nearly all of its numbers. When Cave died in 1754 Johnson wrote a life of the bookseller for The Gentleman's Magazine. Johnson's working method as a writer was plex: he first made a rough draft, then "turned over in his mind all the Latin words into which the sentence could be formed. Finally, he made up Latin-derived English words to convey his sense." (from The March of the Literature) 2. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., Is Available on the Web After serving the Columbia munity for the past two years on only a few terminals and in plain-text, the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., (OED2) is now available on the Web for full-text searching. The OED2 is of course the most plete historical record of the English language. Any description of it begins to sound like its entry in the Guinness Book: the largest dictionary of the English language, containing 615,000 word forms with 139,900 pronunciations, 219,000 etymologies, and 2,436,600 quotations. James A.H. Murray, Editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, in his "Scriptorium" (ca. 1880). The history of the OED parallels the history of modern publishing. Conceived in 1858 as a project of the Philological Society of England, publication began in 1884 and has continued for more than a century to 1989. In 1879, Sir James Murray, the primary editor of the OED, built a "Scriptorium" to house the more than two tons of paper "slips" that formed the raw material of the series. The plete first edition was not published until 1928. And, it wasn't until 1972 that the 4-volume Supplement began to be published. The Second Edition consolidates the first edition, the 4-volume Supplement, as well as 5,000 new words. However, to publish the OED2 as one uninterrupted set meant the integration of some 22,000 pages of text. The puterization process essential for this integration, along with the foresight of its publishers, culminated in 1984 with the publication of the first CD-ROM version: the 135-pound text became available on a disk weighing a few grams. Academic Information Systems (AcIS) published the data on the network over two years ago. For the new Web version, Ben Beecher, Analyst/Programmer, has added several new and innovative features, making Columbia's implementation of the OED2 much more plete and useful than has previous been acplished on the Web: § The International Phonetic Alphabet is available, which makes the 139,900 pronunciations presentable on the Web. § The plete list of some 500 abbreviations have been converted and are linked to in every entry. § The many special characters used, for example, to indicate words as obsolete, are visible for the first time. By the terms of Columbia's license agreement with Oxford University Press, access to the OED2 is limited to Columbia students, faculty, and staff. 3.About the dictionary For students of English as a second language, a good English dictionary is essential.  It is a source of valuable information and if it is used correctly, the dictionary will serve as a useful tool toward your goal of English fluency. There are many types of dictionaries that a student may consider, including collegiate, learner's, unabridged, and bilingual dictionaries. For more advanced students, collegiate or college dictionaries are preferred.  In addition to the standard word entries, collegiate dictionaries often contain sections with abbreviations, foreign expressions used in English, and biographical listings.  Some also contain geographical listings. Learner's dictionaries are highly remended.  This type of dictionary is written specifically for students of English as a foreign language.  Definitions are written in clear, easy to understand English.  These dictionaries often anticipate learners' questions with special explanatory sections.  They also use a standard phonetic alphabet to indicate pronunci