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文档内容摘要
doc 2019-2020年高中英语第三册(全一册)Unit14Zoology-Period2Let’sread Goals ◆ Talk about animals and animal behaviour ◆ Practise debating ◆ Integrative language practice ◆ Write an argumentative essay Period 2 Let’s read! (THE LANGUAGE OF HONEY-BEES) Goals Learn about the munication of bees Learn the ways scientists use to do research Procedures Step 1: Discussing in pairs 1. How do people municate with each other? The way people use to municate with each other Spoken language Written language Facial expressions Hand gestures Posture Body language 2. How do animals municate? The way animals use to municate with each other sounds smell movements touch with each other facial expressions body language posture 3.How much do you know Professor Karl von Frisch, a famous zoologist? Karl von Frisch Frisch is best known for his studies of bees. In 1919 he demonstrated that bees can be trained to distinguish between various tastes and odours. He found that while their sense of smell is similar to that of humans, their sense of taste is not as highly developed. He also observed that it is not limited to the quality of sweetness. He found that bees municate the distance and direction of a food supply to other members of the colony by two types of rhythmic movements or dances: circling and wagging. The circling dance indicates that food is within 75 m (about 250 feet) of the hive, while the wagging dance indicates a greater distance. In 1949 Frisch established that bees, through their perception of polarized light, use the Sun as a pass. He also found that they are capable of using this method of orientation when the Sun is not visible, apparently remembering patterns of polarization presented by the sky at different times of the day and the location of previously encountered landmarks. Bees are dependent on pollen as a protein source and on flower nectar or oils as an energy source. Adult females collect pollen primarily to feed their larvae. The pollen they inevitably lose in going from flower to flower is important to plants because some pollen lands on the pistils (reproductive structures) of other flowers of the same species, resulting in cross-pollination. Bees are, in fact, the most important pollinating insects, and their interdependence with plants makes them an excellent example of the type of symbiosis known as mutualism, an association between unlike organisms that is beneficial to both parties. Most bees have specialized branched or feathery body hairs that help in the collection of pollen. Female bees, like many other hymenopterans, have a defensive sting. Some bees produce honey from flower nectar. Honey bees and stingless bees monly hoard large quantities of honey—a characteristic that is exploited by beekeepers, who harvest the honey for human consumption. There are about 20,000 species of bees worldwide. Some species may not yet have been discovered, and many are either not named or have not been well studied. Bees are found throughout the world except at the highest altitudes, in polar regions, and on some small oceanic islands. The greatest diversity of bee species is found in warm, arid or semiarid areas, especially in the American Southwest and Mexico. Bees range in size from tiny species only 2 mm (0.08 in) in length to rather large insects up to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Many bees are black or gray, but others are bright yellow, red, or metallic green or blue. Step 2: Reading and judging Read the text quickly and decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1. Scientists have interest in honey-bees because of the “language” they use to municate with each other. 2. Professor Karl von Frisch built special hives and a transparent wall to observe bees. 3. After seeing one bee’s dance, the surrounding bees leave the hive and go to the feeding place directly. 4. The bees from close feeding place perform a wagging dance. 5. With a stop-watch, zoologists counted the time bees used to fly from the feeding place to the hive. 6. The expression “to make a beeline for someone or something” means to go quickly along a straight course for somebody or something. 7. Professor von Frisch did so much work on the munication of animals that he was rewarded a Nobel Prize in 1973. Step 3: Listening and filling Listen to the tape and read the text, then fill the form below. Problems Experiments Results Conclusion How did one bee municate the news of food to other bees in its hive? Professor von Frisch marked some bees with little dots of colour. The marked bee performed a circle dance, and the surrounding bees copied it and left for the feeding place together. The circle dance municated the news of food. Did the dance convey more information? Professor von Frisch set up two feeding places, one close to the hive, the other much farther away, and marked the bees with two colours. Bees from nearby feeding place did circling dance, while bees from the distant one did a wagging dance. The two dances told the bees about the location of the feeding place. How did bees tell the exact distance to the feeding place? Zoologists moved the feeding place slowly farther, and used a stop-watch to count how many times the bees repeated the dance per minute. The farther away the feeding station was, the slower the dance was. The number of wagging dances per minute told the exact distance to the feeding place. Could bees tell each other the exact position of a feeding place? Scientists obtained more data and did more experiments. The zoologists clarified the procedure by which bees municate information that they use to find and fetch food. Step 4: Reading and underlining Read the text again and underline the useful expressions. Copy them in your notebooks after class as homework. Useful expressions from the text many different varieties of bee, make