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文档内容摘要
doc 2019-2020年高中英语必修5Unit2Environment-GrammarandUsage(1) Step 1: General introduction The grammar items in this unit focus on the verb-ing form as adjective and adverb and verb-ing phrase. You will learn how a verb-ing form can be used as an adjective or adverb and how a verb-phrase can be used as a verb-ing on its own. Step2: Revision Since a verb-ing form can be used as an adjective or adverb, it can serve in a sentence as the attribute, the predicative or the object plement. Now let’s read some sentences and try to identify the function of the underlined words or phrases. It’s nice to see a familiar face here. (the attribute) He is greedy for knowledge. (the predicative) The news that I failed in the exam made me upset. (object plement) Last night the whole city was left getting into a mess because of power failure. (subject plement) Step 2: Explanation: 1. Now can you tell the use of the verb-ing in the following sentences? A.There are two roads before us, one leading to the beach, the other to the park. She went on board the train leaving for Shanghai. He rushed into the burning house. The child standing over there is my brother. The verb-ing forms in these sentences are all used as the attribute. Can you change the following attributive clauses into verb-ing form? 1). A taxi which is waiting is around the corner. Go and take it. 2).It is said that nothing that lives can be found on Mars. 3).The boy who was smiling ran to his mother. 4).The woman who is ing to dinner this evening works in the bank. 5).The young man who is looking at the map is lost. 6).The man who is performing in the street can play five musical instruments. Sample answers: 1). A waiting taxi is around the corner. Go and take it. 2). It is said that no living things can be found on Mars. 3). The smiling boy ran to his mother. 4). The woman ing to dinner this evening works in the bank. 5). The young man looking at the map is lost. 6). The man performing in the street can play five musical instruments. B. Our work is serving the people. The argument is very convincing. This food smells inviting. The news that the Chinese team won 32 gold medals in the Olympics games was encouraging . The verb-ing forms in these sentences are all used as the predicative. They follow linking verbs. C. I watched the athlete jumping from the diving board into the swimming pool. The boy looked out of his window and saw a man entering his neighbouring’s house. I heard someone playing the violin in the next room. The verb-ing forms in these sentences are all used as the object plement. A verb-ing form may be used after verbs like see, watch, notice, hear and observe as an object plement. 2. Read Part 2. You may notice that a verb-ing can be used after verbs after verbs like stand, sit and lie to show that the two actions are happening at the same time. Eg. The girl lay in bed reading her favorite novel. = The girl lay in bed while she was reading her favorite novel. The boy sat at the table eating his breakfast. = The boy sat at the table while he was eating his breakfast. The man sat on the sofa watching TV.= The man sat on the sofa while he was watching TV. 3. Now read the sentences in Part 3. A verb-ing has a perfect form “having +verb-ed”to show this verb happens before the main verb. Eg. Having finished his homework, he sat down to watch. Having returned from the supermarket, she started to prepare the dinner. 4. Go over Points 1-4 in Part 1 on Page 30. verb-ing phrases can express the time, the reason, the result and the condition. Eg. 1).Knowing that there was a dog outside, the little boy didn’t open the door. 2).Having plenty of money, she was able to go anywhere on holidays. 3).Lucy and Lily, looking so alike, are often mistaken for twins. 4).The couple went shopping, leaving their eldest daughter alone at home. 5).Time permitting, I will meet you for lunch. Can you rewrite these sentences ,using clauses introduced by when,after,because,as a result,and if ect. Sample answers: 1). Because he knew that there was a dog outside, the little boy didn’t open the door. 2). Because she had plenty of money, she was able to go anywhere on holidays. 3). Lucy and Lily, because they look so alike, are often mistaken for twins. 4). The couple went shopping. As a result, they left their eldest daughter alone at home. 5). If time permits, I will meet you for lunch. 5.We can also use the pattern conj.+verb-ing to express the time. Go over Part 2 and here are more examples. Eg. While waiting for the bus, he read the newspaper. Whiling building a tunnel through the mountain, the workers discovered an underground lake. 6. Notices: 1).The understood subject of a verb-ing phrase is usually the same as the subject of the main clause. 2). The word “not” should be put before the verb-ing to create its negative form. Eg. Hearing the news, her face lit up.(误) Hearing the news, she felt happy.(正) While cleaning the window, her finger got hurt.(误) While cleaning the window, she had her finger hurt.(正) Not knowing much English, he found it difficult to municate with others when he was traveling abroad. Not having received a reply, he wrote a letter to the professor again. For reference: 非谓语动词包括不定式,过去分词和动词的ing形式。动词的-ing形式包括动名词和现在分词。 1.动名词(Gerund): 1)动名词的功能:动名词可以起名词的作用,在句子中作主语,宾语,表语和定语。例: 1. Playing football is my favourite sport. 主语 2.Tom made his aunt angry by not taking his medicine. 宾语 3 Her job is washing,cleaning and taking care of the children.表语 4.There’s a swimming pool in front of my house. 定语 2)动名词用法注意点: A.时态和语态及动名词的复合结构 动名词的时态,语态见下表:   主 动 被 动 一 般 writing being written 完 成 having written having been written 例:I remember being taken to Wuhan when I was a very small child.(动名词的一般被动态) She admitted having opened the box.(动名词的完成被动态) How about the two of u